Satoshi Nakamoto Bitcoin Wiki - The Second Bitcoin Whitepaper

AllTheBitcoins: For Bitcoins, forks and orphans

Welcome to AllTheBitcoins: The subreddit appealing to supporters of all the competing implementations and forks of Bitcoin. You are welcome here no matter who you side with or which chain you consider to be the proper Bitcoin design.
[link]

Bitcoin - The Internet of Money

/btc was created to foster and support free and open Bitcoin discussion about cryptocurrency, Bitcoin news, and exclusive AMA (Ask Me Anything) interviews from top Bitcoin and cryptocurrency leaders. Bitcoin is the currency of the Internet. A distributed, worldwide, decentralized digital money. Unlike traditional currencies such as dollars, bitcoins are issued and managed without the need for any central authority whatsoever. Learn more about Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, cryptocurrency, and more.
[link]

Bitcoin Newcomers FAQ - Please read!

Welcome to the /Bitcoin Sticky FAQ

You've probably been hearing a lot about Bitcoin recently and are wondering what's the big deal? Most of your questions should be answered by the resources below but if you have additional questions feel free to ask them in the comments.
It all started with the release of the release of Satoshi Nakamoto's whitepaper however that will probably go over the head of most readers so we recommend the following videos for a good starting point for understanding how bitcoin works and a little about its long term potential:
Some other great resources include Lopp.net, the Princeton crypto series and James D'Angelo's Bitcoin 101 Blackboard series.
Some excellent writing on Bitcoin's value proposition and future can be found at the Satoshi Nakamoto Institute.
Some Bitcoin statistics can be found here and here. Developer resources can be found here. Peer-reviewed research papers can be found here.
Potential upcoming protocol improvements and scaling resources here and here.
The number of times Bitcoin was declared dead by the media can be found here (LOL!)

Key properties of Bitcoin

Where can I buy bitcoins?

Bitcoin.org and BuyBitcoinWorldwide.com are helpful sites for beginners. You can buy or sell any amount of bitcoin (even just a few dollars worth) and there are several easy methods to purchase bitcoin with cash, credit card or bank transfer. Some of the more popular resources are below, also check out the bitcoinity exchange resources for a larger list of options for purchases.
Here is a listing of local ATMs. If you would like your paycheck automatically converted to bitcoin use Bitwage.
Note: Bitcoins are valued at whatever market price people are willing to pay for them in balancing act of supply vs demand. Unlike traditional markets, bitcoin markets operate 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Preev is a useful site that that shows how much various denominations of bitcoin are worth in different currencies. Alternatively you can just Google "1 bitcoin in (your local currency)".

Securing your bitcoins

With bitcoin you can "Be your own bank" and personally secure your bitcoins OR you can use third party companies aka "Bitcoin banks" which will hold the bitcoins for you.
Note: For increased security, use Two Factor Authentication (2FA) everywhere it is offered, including email!
2FA requires a second confirmation code to access your account making it much harder for thieves to gain access. Google Authenticator and Authy are the two most popular 2FA services, download links are below. Make sure you create backups of your 2FA codes.
Google Auth Authy OTP Auth
Android Android N/A
iOS iOS iOS

Watch out for scams

As mentioned above, Bitcoin is decentralized, which by definition means there is no official website or Twitter handle or spokesperson or CEO. However, all money attracts thieves. This combination unfortunately results in scammers running official sounding names or pretending to be an authority on YouTube or social media. Many scammers throughout the years have claimed to be the inventor of Bitcoin. Websites like bitcoin(dot)com and the btc subreddit are active scams. Almost all altcoins (shitcoins) are marketed heavily with big promises but are really just designed to separate you from your bitcoin. So be careful: any resource, including all linked in this document, may in the future turn evil. Don't trust, verify. Also as they say in our community "Not your keys, not your coins".

Where can I spend bitcoins?

Check out spendabit or bitcoin directory for millions of merchant options. Also you can spend bitcoin anywhere visa is accepted with bitcoin debit cards such as the CashApp card. Some other useful site are listed below.
Store Product
Gyft Gift cards for hundreds of retailers including Amazon, Target, Walmart, Starbucks, Whole Foods, CVS, Lowes, Home Depot, iTunes, Best Buy, Sears, Kohls, eBay, GameStop, etc.
Spendabit, Overstock and The Bitcoin Directory Retail shopping with millions of results
ShakePay Generate one time use Visa cards in seconds
NewEgg and Dell For all your electronics needs
Bitwa.la, Coinbills, Piixpay, Bitbill.eu, Bylls, Coins.ph, Bitrefill, LivingRoomofSatoshi, Coinsfer, and more Bill payment
Menufy, Takeaway and Thuisbezorgd NL Takeout delivered to your door
Expedia, Cheapair, Destinia, Abitsky, SkyTours, the Travel category on Gyft and 9flats For when you need to get away
Cryptostorm, Mullvad, and PIA VPN services
Namecheap, Porkbun Domain name registration
Stampnik Discounted USPS Priority, Express, First-Class mail postage
Coinmap and AirBitz are helpful to find local businesses accepting bitcoins. A good resource for UK residents is at wheretospendbitcoins.co.uk.
There are also lots of charities which accept bitcoin donations.

Merchant Resources

There are several benefits to accepting bitcoin as a payment option if you are a merchant;
If you are interested in accepting bitcoin as a payment method, there are several options available;

Can I mine bitcoin?

Mining bitcoins can be a fun learning experience, but be aware that you will most likely operate at a loss. Newcomers are often advised to stay away from mining unless they are only interested in it as a hobby similar to folding at home. If you want to learn more about mining you can read more here. Still have mining questions? The crew at /BitcoinMining would be happy to help you out.
If you want to contribute to the bitcoin network by hosting the blockchain and propagating transactions you can run a full node using this setup guide. If you would prefer to keep it simple there are several good options. You can view the global node distribution here.

Earning bitcoins

Just like any other form of money, you can also earn bitcoins by being paid to do a job.
Site Description
WorkingForBitcoins, Bitwage, Cryptogrind, Coinality, Bitgigs, /Jobs4Bitcoins, BitforTip, Rein Project Freelancing
Lolli Earn bitcoin when you shop online!
OpenBazaar, Purse.io, Bitify, /Bitmarket, 21 Market Marketplaces
/GirlsGoneBitcoin NSFW Adult services
A-ads, Coinzilla.io Advertising
You can also earn bitcoins by participating as a market maker on JoinMarket by allowing users to perform CoinJoin transactions with your bitcoins for a small fee (requires you to already have some bitcoins.

Bitcoin-Related Projects

The following is a short list of ongoing projects that might be worth taking a look at if you are interested in current development in the bitcoin space.
Project Description
Lightning Network Second layer scaling
Blockstream, Rootstock and Drivechain Sidechains
Hivemind and Augur Prediction markets
Tierion and Factom Records & Titles on the blockchain
BitMarkets, DropZone, Beaver and Open Bazaar Decentralized markets
JoinMarket and Wasabi Wallet CoinJoin implementation
Coinffeine and Bisq Decentralized bitcoin exchanges
Keybase Identity & Reputation management
Abra Global P2P money transmitter network
Bitcore Open source Bitcoin javascript library

Bitcoin Units

One Bitcoin is quite large (hundreds of £/$/€) so people often deal in smaller units. The most common subunits are listed below:
Unit Symbol Value Info
bitcoin BTC 1 bitcoin one bitcoin is equal to 100 million satoshis
millibitcoin mBTC 1,000 per bitcoin used as default unit in recent Electrum wallet releases
bit bit 1,000,000 per bitcoin colloquial "slang" term for microbitcoin (μBTC)
satoshi sat 100,000,000 per bitcoin smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor
For example, assuming an arbitrary exchange rate of $10000 for one Bitcoin, a $10 meal would equal:
For more information check out the Bitcoin units wiki.
Still have questions? Feel free to ask in the comments below or stick around for our weekly Mentor Monday thread. If you decide to post a question in /Bitcoin, please use the search bar to see if it has been answered before, and remember to follow the community rules outlined on the sidebar to receive a better response. The mods are busy helping manage our community so please do not message them unless you notice problems with the functionality of the subreddit.
Note: This is a community created FAQ. If you notice anything missing from the FAQ or that requires clarification you can edit it here and it will be included in the next revision pending approval.
Welcome to the Bitcoin community and the new decentralized economy!
submitted by BitcoinFan7 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

RiB Newsletter #16 – Secure Enclaves à la Crab

For the last few months we’ve been following new zero-knowledge proof projects in Rust. This month, with Secret Network upgrading their mainnet with secret contracts, it seems like a good opportunity to explore Rust blockchains that are using a completely different privacy-preserving technology: secure enclaves.
Secure enclaves are processes whose environment is protected from inspection by other processes, even the kernel, by special hardware. This protection particularly involves the encryption of a process’s memory. Software that wants to compute in secret can put those computations inside a secure enclave and, if everything works as expected, neither a local user, nor the hosting provider, can snoop on the computations being performed. The most notable implementation of secure enclaves is Intel’s SGX (Secure Guard Extensions).
Secure enclaves are an attractive way to perform private computation primarily because they don’t impose any limitations on what can be computed — code that runs inside SGX is more-or-less just regular x86 code, just running inside a special environment. But depending on SGX for privacy does have some special risks: software that runs in an SGX enclave must be signed (if transitively) by Intel’s own cryptographic keys, which means that Intel must approve of any software running in SGX, that Intel can revoke permission to use SGX, and that there is a risk of the signing keys being compromised; and it’s not obvious that secure enclaves are actually secure, there have already been a number of attacks against SGX. Regardless, as of now, hardware enclaves provide security features that aren’t feasible any other way.
There are two prominent Rust blockchains relying on SGX:
Outside of the blockchain world there are some other Rust projects using SGX, the most notable being:
Whether it’s secure enclaves or zk-SNARKs, Rust blockchains are walking the bleeding edge of privacy tech.
In unrelated RiB news, we recently received two donations,
Thanks so much to our anonymous donors. We don’t often receive donations, so this was a nice surprise! We intend to put all monetary contributions to use funding events or new contributors, and we’ll let you know what we do with the funds when we spend them.

Project Spotlight

Each month we like to shine a light on a notable Rust blockchain project. This month that project is…
Aleo.
Aleo is a zero-knowledge blockchain, with its own zero-knowledge programming language, Leo.
We don’t have a lot to say about it, but we think it looks cool. We hope they blog more.

Interesting Things

News

Blog Posts

Papers

Projects


Read more: https://rustinblockchain.org/newsletters/2020-09-30-secure-enclaves-a-la-crab/
submitted by Aimeedeer to rust [link] [comments]

Benefits of Blockchain Technology in the Banking Industry

Benefits of Blockchain Technology in the Banking Industry
Link to original article: https://block.co/benefits-of-blockchain-technology-in-the-banking-industry/
The rapidly growing interest around blockchain is creating an increased amount of use cases across multiple industries, and a high demand for adoption by many governments. Banking, financial services, and insurance (BFSI) industry is predicted to be drastically transformed by this disruptive technology. According to Allied Market Research 2019, the blockchain value in the BFSI market reached $277.1 million in 2018 and is projected to reach $22.46 billion by 2026. Blockchain technology has the potential to solve the pain points of the current banking systems and operations including security, transparency, trust, privacy, programmability, and performance.
What is Blockchain?
Blockchain is the technology behind the Bitcoin cryptocurrency, that was proposed by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008, as a response to the failing financial system during the crisis. It is often associated and confused with Bitcoin, but the scope of the technology is much wider. It is also important to differentiate between the Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) and blockchain, as the terms often used interchangeably. All blockchains are DLT, but not all DLTs are blockchains. DLT is simply a decentralized database managed on a peer-to-peer basis.
“Blockchain is a type of DLT, a subcategory of a more broad definition, much like how the word ‘car’ falls under the umbrella term ‘vehicles’ and ‘Satoshi Nakamoto’ falls under ‘geniuses’.”
In essence, blockchain is a continuous sequential chain of records (‘blocks’) that are chronologically linked together with the aid of cryptography, to ensure immutability. These records are immutable, as any change to the information recorded in a particular block is stored in a new block. Moreover, the use of modern encryption algorithms enables the security of all the records from copying or editing by other users of the system. Blockchain can be programmed to record not only financial transactions as cryptocurrency but almost anything of value (Deloitte Insights, 2019).

https://preview.redd.it/k76j8u5401751.png?width=940&format=png&auto=webp&s=e7f6573a230c816a112ae4bf561f3501c353ad32
How Blockchain Can Improve Banking Industry?
The modern banking system is not perfect and commercial banks have not changed a lot to their servicing structure since the 1970s (Haycock & Richmond, 2015). Running a bank still requires large numbers of the workforce, reliance on quite outdated systems, bloated structures with high probabilities of human error, and manual work. There are several aspects, which could be improved by the application of blockchain technology in banking operations:
1) Security Enhancement
In the UK the overall value of the financial fraud losses (e.g. payment cards, remote banking, cheques) equaled £844.8 million in 2018. The situation is even worse in the US — $170 billion average yearly losses in the financial sector. According to KPMG’s Global Banking Fraud Survey 2019 the total volume, number, and value of the fraudulent activities are drastically increasing every year.
The nature of banking operations dictates the need for centralized systems, which proved to be vulnerable and subject to cyber and hack attacks. Now, the blockchain is immutable as it operates on the principles of decentralization and transparency, and all the network participants get an identical copy of the distributed ledger of transactions. Thus, if applied in banking, blockchain can increase the validity and security of the financial transactions, eliminate the need for third-party authentication, and solve the issue of a single point of failure and hacks.
Moreover, since each transaction on the blockchain has its unique fingerprint (hash) it can be easily traced and verified. Such functionality makes blockchain a great tool to combat money laundering and reduce fraudulent or illegal transactions (Guo & Liang, 2016).
2) Improving Financial Transactions Efficiency
As we mentioned previously, the utilization of obsolete mechanisms and operational systems slows down the performance of banking institutions and provides ground for human error, delays, and system failures. All these inefficiencies could be solved by applying blockchain technology. Take for example the time-consuming bilateral exchange. The process of data reconciliation needed for it could be simplified, as on the blockchain, it is inherently part of a transaction (IBM, 2016).
Blockchain and its decentralized nature eliminate intermediaries in banking operations, which significantly cuts transaction costs and boosts efficiency (Cocco et al., 2017). Blockchain does not require intermediaries, enables cross-border transfers and micro-payments, while drastically decreasing operational costs. Such transactions in the traditional banking environment are expensive (from 1% of the amount), and constitute a huge expense on a global scale. In cryptocurrency networks, transfers may range from a few minutes down to milliseconds, and the transaction fees are decided by the market forces, meaning users have the option to set their transaction fees (Deloitte, 2017).
3) Workflow Simplification
Blockchain can simplify the current complex workflow in banking institutions. As any operation can be traced, the ability to automate processes significantly reduces costs and the need for manual work. Moreover, it is impossible to make retroactive changes on the blockchain. This guarantees data immutability and excludes the human factor, thus the probability of error, data tampering, or even leakage. Using blockchain in banking operations will digitize and automate tons of manual work, greatly boost the productivity of the financial institutions and eliminate the probability of mistakes, delays, and errors.
4) Enhanced KYC & AML
Some financial institutions find it difficult to deal with problems related to policies such as Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Know Your Customer (KYC). Numerous organizations are not able to solve these problems, due to the rapidly escalating costs. The adoption of the blockchain technology will enable the creation of a system where all clients’ information may be stored safely, making the independent verification an easy process or even automated securely. In this way, both AML and KYC processes will become simpler and easier, as all involved organizations will share the same system and the information will be updated in real-time, perhaps through the use of Digital Identities. In addition to this, blockchain technology will assist the organizations to minimize their administrative costs and reduce the workload.

https://preview.redd.it/200e0ap701751.png?width=600&format=png&auto=webp&s=6caaf26c53786c1341b7905ca33dd340f8929059
5) Smart Contracts
Smart contracts are an innovative development of blockchain technology which enables for time and resources saving, as they do not require a third-party interaction. Traditional contracts do not differ a lot from smart contracts, however, their key benefit is that obligations are automatically enforced and cannot be avoided by anyone.
When smart contracts are integrated with blockchain technology, we enjoy benefits such as security, automation, immutability, and transparency. The integration of smart contracts in the financial sector will provide opportunities for transparent auditing and real-time remittances. Traditional contracts are paper-based and require financial institutions to invest money in paperwork and maintain records. These records can be easily manipulated as they are on paper. Smart contracts offer bank tools for bookkeeping based on blockchain. Smart contracts have already been applied to the financial industry to gain greater automation.
6) Decentralized Finance
Another application of blockchain is Decentralized Finance, also known as DeFi. This application is at an early stage but its disruptiveness enables millions of people across the world to have access to financial services. DeFi refers to decentralized applications, financial smart contracts, digital assets as well as protocols popular as DApps, which are built on public blockchains such as Ethereum and Bitcoin. The aim of DeFi is the creation of a decentralized financial system that will not depend on the traditional banking system.
Decentralized Finance offers numerous benefits to the users as it eliminates middlemen, enables everyone who does not has access to financial services to enter the global economy as it is a permission-less technology, and enables innovation with the combination of DeFi products. Besides, the use of decentralized finance increases the symmetry of information and democratizes financial services in this sense. The evolution of DeFi over the years means that most people around the world are only limited by their imagination when considering how to gain benefits from the financial ecosystem. However, there are still many complexities that need addressing to further expand the full extent of the possibilities of DeFi.
For more info, contact Block.co directly or email at [email protected].
Tel +357 70007828
Get the latest from Block.co, like and follow us on social media:
✔️Facebook
✔️LinkedIn
✔️Twitter
✔️YouTube
✔️Medium
✔️Instagram
✔️Telegram
✔️Reddit
✔️GitHub
submitted by BlockDotCo to u/BlockDotCo [link] [comments]

The Intellectual Foundation of Bitcoin比特幣的智識基礎. By Chapman Chen, HKBNews

The Intellectual Foundation of Bitcoin比特幣的智識基礎. By Chapman Chen, HKBNews

https://preview.redd.it/w6v3l8n3zxu41.jpg?width=2551&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=fb0338a36a1a321d3781f43ff5eb6929d8b92edc
Summary: Bitcoin was invented by the anonymous Satoshi Nakamoto as recently as 2008, but it is backed up by a rich intellectual foundation. For instance, The 1776 First Amendment separates church and state, and contemporary American liberation psychologist Nozomi Hayase (2020) argues that money and state should similarly be separated. Just as Isaac Newton’s study of alchemy gave rise to the international gold standard, so has the anonymous creator Satoshi Nakamoto's desire for a “modernized gold standard” given rise to Bitcoin. Indeed, Bloomberg's 2020 report confirms Bitcoin to be gold 2.0. Montesquieu (1774) asserted that laws that secure inalienable rights can only be found in Nature, and the natural laws employed in Bitcoin include its consensus algorithm and the three natural laws of economics (self-interest, competition, and supply and demand). J.S. Mill (1859) preferred free markets to those controlled by governments. Ludwig von Mises (1951) argued against the hazards of fiat currency, urging for a return to the gold standard. Friedrich Hayek (1984) suggested people to invent a sly way to take money back from the hands of the government. Milton Friedman (1994) called for FED to be replaced by an automatic system and predicted the coming of a reliable e-cash. James Buchanan (1988) advocated a monetary constitution to constrain the governmental power of money creation. Tim May (1997) the cypherpunk proclaimed that restricting digital cash impinges on free speech, and envisioned a stateless digital form of money that is uncensorable. The Tofflers (2006) pictured a non-monetary economy. In 2016, UCLA Professor of Finance Bhagwan Chowdhry even nominated Satoshi for a Nobel Prize.
Full Text:
Separation between money and state
The 1791 First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution enshrines free speech and separates church and state, but not money and state. "Under the First Amendment, individuals’ right to create, choose their own money and transact freely was not recognized as a part of freedom of expression that needs to be protected," Japanese-American liberation psychologist Nozomi Hayase (2020) points out (1).
The government, banks and corporations collude together to encroach upon people's liberties by metamorphosing their inalienable rights into a permissioned from of legal rights. Fiat currencies function as a medium of manipulation, indulging big business to generate market monopolies. "Freedom of expression has become further stifled through economic censorship and financial blockage enacted by payment processing companies like Visa and MasterCard," to borrow Hayase's (2020) words.
Satoshi is a Modern Newton
Although most famous for discovering the law of gravity, Isaac Newton was also a practising alchemist. He never managed to turn lead into gold, but he did find a way to transmute silver into gold. In 1717, Newton announced in a report that, based on his studies, one gold guinea coin weighed 21 shillings. Just as Isaac Newton’s study of alchemy gave rise to the international gold standard, so has the desire for a “modernized gold standard” given rise to Bitcoin. "In a way, Satoshi is a modern Newton. They both believed trust is best placed in the unchangeable facets of our economy. Beneath this belief is the assumption that each individual is their own best master," as put by Jon Creasy (2019) (2).
J.S. Mill: free markets preferable to those controlled by governments
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) the great English philosopher would be a Bitcoiner were he still around today. In On Liberty (1859), Mill concludes that free markets are preferable to those controlled by governments. He argues that economies function best when left to their own devices. Therefore, government intervention, though theoretically permissible, would be counterproductive. Bitcoin is precisely decentralized or uncontrolled by the government, unconfiscatable, permissonless, and disinflationary. Bitcoin regulates itself spontaneously via the ordinary operations of the system. "Rules are enforced without applying any external pressure," in Hayase's (2020) words.
Ludwig von Mises (1958): Liberty is always Freedom from the Government
In The Free Market and its Enemies, theoretical Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises (1951) argues against the hazards of fiat currency, urging for a return to the gold standard. “A fiat money system cannot go on forever and must one day come to an end,” Von Mises states. The solution is a return to the gold standard, "the only standard which makes the determination of the purchasing power of money independent of the changing ideas of political parties, governments, and pressure groups" under present conditions. Interestingly, this is also one of the key structural attributes of Bitcoin, the world’s first, global, peer-to-peer, decentralized value transfer network.
Actually, Bloomberg's 2020 report on Bitcoin confirms that it is gold 2.0. (3)
Von Mises prefers the price of gold to be determined according to the contemporaneous market conditions. The bitcoin price is, of course, determined across the various global online exchanges, in real-time. There is no central authority setting a spot price for gold after the which the market value is settled on among the traders during the day.
Hayek: Monopoly on Currency should End
Austrian-British Nobel laureate Friedrich Hayek’s theory in his 1976 work, Denationalization of Money, was that not only would the currency monopoly be taken away from the government, but that the monopoly on currency itself should end with multiple alternative currencies competing for acceptance by consumers, in order "to prevent the bouts of acute inflation and deflation which have played the world for the past 60 years." He forcefully argues that if there is no free competition between different currencies within any nation, then there will be no free market. Bitcoin is, again, decentralized, and many other cryptocurrencies have tried to compete with it, though in vain.
In a recently rediscovered video clip from 1984, Hayek actually suggested people to invent a cunning way to take money out of the hands of the government:- “I don’t believe we shall ever have a good money again before we take the thing out of the hands of government, that is, we can’t take them violently out of the hands of government, all we can do is by some sly roundabout way introduce something they can’t stop” (4). Reviewing those words 36 years hence and it is difficult not to interpret them in the light of Bitcoin.
Milton Friedman Called for FED to be Replaced by an Automatic System
Nobel laureate economist Milton Friedman (1994) was critical of the Federal Reserve due to its poor performance and felt it should be abolished (5). Friedman (1999) believed that the Federal Reserve System should ultimately be replaced with a computer program, which makes us think of the computer code governing Bitcoin (6).[\](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_the_Federal_Reserve#cite_note-:2-12) He (1970) favored a system that would automatically buy and sell securities in response to changes in the money supply. This, he argued, would put a lid on inflation, setting spending and investment decisions on a surer footing (7). Bitcoin is exactly disflationary as its maximum possible supply is 21 million and its block reward or production rate is halved every four years.
Friedman passed away before the coming of bitcoin, but he lived long enough to see the Internet’s spectacular rise throughout the 1990s. “I think that the Internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government," said Friedman in a 1999 interview with NTU/F. On the same occasion, he sort of predicted the emergence of Bitcoin, "The one thing that’s missing, but that will soon be developed, is a reliable e-cash, a method whereby on the Internet you can transfer funds from A to B, without A knowing B or B knowing A." (8)
Of course, Friedman didnt predict the block chain, summed up American libertarian economist Jeffery Tucker (2014). “But he was hoping for a trustless system. He saw the need. (9).
Bitcoin Computer Code as Constitution in the Buchananian Sense
American economist cum Nobel laureate James Buchanan (1988) advocates constitutional constraints on the governmental power to create money (10). Buchanan distinguishes a managed monetary system—a system “that embodies the instrumental use of price-level predictability as a norm of policy”—from an automatic monetary system, “which does not, at any stage, involve the absolute price level” (Buchanan 1962, 164–65). Leaning toward the latter, Buchanan argues that automatic systems are characterized by an organization “of the institutions of private decision-making in such a way that the desired monetary predictability will emerge spontaneously from the ordinary operations of the system” (Buchanan 1962, 164). Again, "Bitcoin regulates itself through the spontaneous force of nature, flourishing healthy price discovery and competition in the best interest of everyone" (Hayase 2020).
Shruti Rajagopalan (2018) argues that the computer code governing how the sundry nodes/computers within the Bitcoin network interact with one another is a kind of monetary constitution in the Buchananian sense. One of Buchanan's greatest inputs is to differentiate the choice of rules from the choice within rule (Buchanan 1990). One may regard the Bitcoin code as a sort of constitution and "the Bitcoin network engaging in both the choice of rules and choice within rules" (Rajagopalan 2018) (11).
Tim May: Restricting Digital Cash may Impinge on Free Speech
Cypherpunks are activists who since the 1980s have advocated global use of strong cryptography and privacy-enhancing technologies as a route to social and political liberation. Tim May (Timothy C. May [1951-2018]), one of the influential cypherpunks published The Crypto Anarchist Manifesto in September 1992, which foretold the coming of Bitcoin (12). Cypherpunks began envisioning a stateless digital form of money that cannot be censored and their collaborative pursuit created a movement akin to the 18th Enlightenment.
At The 7th Conference on Computers, Freedom, and Privacy, Burlingame, CA. in 1997, Tim May equated money with speech, and argued that restricting digital cash may impinge on free speech, for spending money is often a matter of communicating orders to others, to transfer funds, to release funds, etc. In fact, most financial instruments are contracts or orders, instead of physical specie or banknotes (13).
Montesquieu: Laws that secure inalienable rights can only be found in Nature
In his influential work The Spirit of Laws (1748), Montesquieu wrote, “Laws ... are derived from the nature of things … Law, like mathematics, has its objective structure, which no arbitrary whim can alter". Similarly, once a block is added to the end of the Bitcoin blockchain, it is almost impossible to go back and alter the contents of the block, unless every single block after it on the blockchain is altered, too.
Cypherpunks knew that whereas alienable rights that are bestowed by law can be deprived by legislation, inalienable rights are not to be created but can be discovered by reason. Thus, laws that secure inalienable rights cannot be created by humankind but can be found in nature.
The natural laws employed in Bitcoin to enshrine the inalienable monetary right of every human being include its consensus algorithm, and the three natural laws of economics (self-interest, competition, and supply and demand) as identified by Adam Smith, father of modern economics.
Regarding mathematics, bitcoin mining is performed by high-powered computers that solve complex computational math problems. When computers solve these complex math problems on the Bitcoin network, they produce new bitcoin. And by solving computational math problems, bitcoin miners make the Bitcoin payment network trustworthy and secure, by verifying its transaction information.
Regarding economic laws, in accordance with the principle of game theory to generate fairness, miners take part in an open competition. Lining up self-interests of all in a network, with a vigilant balance of risk and rewards, rules are put in force sans the application of any exterior pressure. "Bitcoin regulates itself through the spontaneous force of nature, flourishing healthy price discovery and competition in the best interest of everyone," to borrow the words of Hayase (2020).
A Non-monetary Economy as Visualized by the Tofflers
In their book, Revolutionary Wealth (2006), futurists Alvin Toffler and his wife Heidi Toffler toy with the concept of a world sans money, raising a third kind of economic transaction that is neither one-on-one barter nor monetary exchange. In the end, they settle on the idea that the newer non-monetary economy will exist shoulder-to-shoulder with the monetary sector in the short term, although the latter may eventually be eclipsed by the former in the long run. What both the Tofflers' The Third Wave (1980) and Revolutionary Wealth bring into question is the very premise of monetary exchange. The vacuum left over by cash in such a non-monetary economy may be filled up by Bitcoin as a cryptocurrency.
Satoshi Nakamoto Nominated for Nobel Prize by UCLA Finance Prof.
UCLA Anderson School Professor of Finance Bhagwan Chowdhry nominated Satoshi Nakamoto for the 2016 Nobel Prize in Economics on the following grounds:-
It is secure, relying on almost unbreakable cryptographic code, can be divided into millions of smaller sub-units, and can be transferred securely and nearly instantaneously from one person to any other person in the world with access to internet bypassing governments, central banks and financial intermediaries such as Visa, Mastercard, Paypal or commercial banks eliminating time delays and transactions costs.... Satoshi Nakamoto’s Bitcoin Protocol has spawned exciting innovations in the FinTech space by showing how many financial contracts — not just currencies — can be digitized, securely verified and stored, and transferred instantaneously from one party to another (14).
Fb link: https://www.facebook.com/hongkongbilingualnews/posts/947121432392288?__tn__=-R
Web link: https://www.hkbnews.net/post/the-intellectual-foundation-of-bitcoin%E6%AF%94%E7%89%B9%E5%B9%A3%E7%9A%84%E6%99%BA%E8%AD%98%E5%9F%BA%E7%A4%8E-by-chapman-chen-hkbnews
Disclaimer: This article is neither an advertisement nor professional financial advice.
End-notes
  1. https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/bitcoin-is-the-technology-of-dissent-that-secures-individual-liberties
  2. https://medium.com/hackernoon/why-sir-isaac-newton-was-the-first-bitcoin-maximalist-195a17cb6c34
  3. https://data.bloomberglp.com/professional/sites/10/Bloomberg-Crypto-Outlook-April-2020.pdf
  4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EYhEDxFwFRU&t=1161s
  5. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6fkdagNrjI
  6. http://youtu.be/mlwxdyLnMXM
  7. https://miltonfriedman.hoover.org/friedman_images/Collections/2016c21/IEA_1970.pdf
  8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6MnQJFEVY7s
  9. https://www.coindesk.com/economist-milton-friedman-predicted-bitcoin
  10. https://www.aier.org/research/prospects-for-a-monetary-constitution/
  11. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3238472
  12. https://www.activism.net/cypherpunk/crypto-anarchy.html
  13. http://osaka.law.miami.edu/~froomkin/articles/tcmay.htm
  14. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/i-shall-happily-accept-th_b_8462028
Pic credit: Framingbitcoin
#bitcoin #bitcoinhalving #jamesBuchanan #MiltonFriedman #AlvinToffler #FirstAmendment #LudwigVonMises #TimMay #freeMarket # SatoshiNakamoto #FriedrichHayek #Cypherpunk #Cryptocurrency #GoldStandard #IsaacNewton
submitted by HKBNews to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.
  • Bitcoin (BTC) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange that is independent of any central authority. BTC can be transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Launched in 2009, BTC is the first virtual currency to solve the double-spending issue by timestamping transactions before broadcasting them to all of the nodes in the Bitcoin network. The Bitcoin Protocol offered a solution to the Byzantine Generals’ Problem with a blockchain network structure, a notion first created by Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta in 1991.
  • Bitcoin’s whitepaper was published pseudonymously in 2008 by an individual, or a group, with the pseudonym “Satoshi Nakamoto”, whose underlying identity has still not been verified.
  • The Bitcoin protocol uses an SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm to reach network consensus. Its network has a target block time of 10 minutes and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens, with a decaying token emission rate. To prevent fluctuation of the block time, the network’s block difficulty is re-adjusted through an algorithm based on the past 2016 block times.
  • With a block size limit capped at 1 megabyte, the Bitcoin Protocol has supported both the Lightning Network, a second-layer infrastructure for payment channels, and Segregated Witness, a soft-fork to increase the number of transactions on a block, as solutions to network scalability.

https://preview.redd.it/s2gmpmeze3151.png?width=256&format=png&auto=webp&s=9759910dd3c4a15b83f55b827d1899fb2fdd3de1

1. What is Bitcoin (BTC)?

  • Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange and is independent of any central authority. Bitcoins are transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Network validators, whom are often referred to as miners, participate in the SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism to determine the next global state of the blockchain.
  • The Bitcoin protocol has a target block time of 10 minutes, and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens. The only way new bitcoins can be produced is when a block producer generates a new valid block.
  • The protocol has a token emission rate that halves every 210,000 blocks, or approximately every 4 years.
  • Unlike public blockchain infrastructures supporting the development of decentralized applications (Ethereum), the Bitcoin protocol is primarily used only for payments, and has only very limited support for smart contract-like functionalities (Bitcoin “Script” is mostly used to create certain conditions before bitcoins are used to be spent).

2. Bitcoin’s core features

For a more beginner’s introduction to Bitcoin, please visit Binance Academy’s guide to Bitcoin.

Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) model

A UTXO transaction works like cash payment between two parties: Alice gives money to Bob and receives change (i.e., unspent amount). In comparison, blockchains like Ethereum rely on the account model.
https://preview.redd.it/t1j6anf8f3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=33bd141d8f2136a6f32739c8cdc7aae2e04cbc47

Nakamoto consensus

In the Bitcoin network, anyone can join the network and become a bookkeeping service provider i.e., a validator. All validators are allowed in the race to become the block producer for the next block, yet only the first to complete a computationally heavy task will win. This feature is called Proof of Work (PoW).
The probability of any single validator to finish the task first is equal to the percentage of the total network computation power, or hash power, the validator has. For instance, a validator with 5% of the total network computation power will have a 5% chance of completing the task first, and therefore becoming the next block producer.
Since anyone can join the race, competition is prone to increase. In the early days, Bitcoin mining was mostly done by personal computer CPUs.
As of today, Bitcoin validators, or miners, have opted for dedicated and more powerful devices such as machines based on Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (“ASIC”).
Proof of Work secures the network as block producers must have spent resources external to the network (i.e., money to pay electricity), and can provide proof to other participants that they did so.
With various miners competing for block rewards, it becomes difficult for one single malicious party to gain network majority (defined as more than 51% of the network’s hash power in the Nakamoto consensus mechanism). The ability to rearrange transactions via 51% attacks indicates another feature of the Nakamoto consensus: the finality of transactions is only probabilistic.
Once a block is produced, it is then propagated by the block producer to all other validators to check on the validity of all transactions in that block. The block producer will receive rewards in the network’s native currency (i.e., bitcoin) as all validators approve the block and update their ledgers.

The blockchain

Block production

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Merkle tree data structure in order to organize hashes of numerous individual transactions into each block. This concept is named after Ralph Merkle, who patented it in 1979.
With the use of a Merkle tree, though each block might contain thousands of transactions, it will have the ability to combine all of their hashes and condense them into one, allowing efficient and secure verification of this group of transactions. This single hash called is a Merkle root, which is stored in the Block Header of a block. The Block Header also stores other meta information of a block, such as a hash of the previous Block Header, which enables blocks to be associated in a chain-like structure (hence the name “blockchain”).
An illustration of block production in the Bitcoin Protocol is demonstrated below.

https://preview.redd.it/m6texxicf3151.png?width=1591&format=png&auto=webp&s=f4253304912ed8370948b9c524e08fef28f1c78d

Block time and mining difficulty

Block time is the period required to create the next block in a network. As mentioned above, the node who solves the computationally intensive task will be allowed to produce the next block. Therefore, block time is directly correlated to the amount of time it takes for a node to find a solution to the task. The Bitcoin protocol sets a target block time of 10 minutes, and attempts to achieve this by introducing a variable named mining difficulty.
Mining difficulty refers to how difficult it is for the node to solve the computationally intensive task. If the network sets a high difficulty for the task, while miners have low computational power, which is often referred to as “hashrate”, it would statistically take longer for the nodes to get an answer for the task. If the difficulty is low, but miners have rather strong computational power, statistically, some nodes will be able to solve the task quickly.
Therefore, the 10 minute target block time is achieved by constantly and automatically adjusting the mining difficulty according to how much computational power there is amongst the nodes. The average block time of the network is evaluated after a certain number of blocks, and if it is greater than the expected block time, the difficulty level will decrease; if it is less than the expected block time, the difficulty level will increase.

What are orphan blocks?

In a PoW blockchain network, if the block time is too low, it would increase the likelihood of nodes producingorphan blocks, for which they would receive no reward. Orphan blocks are produced by nodes who solved the task but did not broadcast their results to the whole network the quickest due to network latency.
It takes time for a message to travel through a network, and it is entirely possible for 2 nodes to complete the task and start to broadcast their results to the network at roughly the same time, while one’s messages are received by all other nodes earlier as the node has low latency.
Imagine there is a network latency of 1 minute and a target block time of 2 minutes. A node could solve the task in around 1 minute but his message would take 1 minute to reach the rest of the nodes that are still working on the solution. While his message travels through the network, all the work done by all other nodes during that 1 minute, even if these nodes also complete the task, would go to waste. In this case, 50% of the computational power contributed to the network is wasted.
The percentage of wasted computational power would proportionally decrease if the mining difficulty were higher, as it would statistically take longer for miners to complete the task. In other words, if the mining difficulty, and therefore targeted block time is low, miners with powerful and often centralized mining facilities would get a higher chance of becoming the block producer, while the participation of weaker miners would become in vain. This introduces possible centralization and weakens the overall security of the network.
However, given a limited amount of transactions that can be stored in a block, making the block time too longwould decrease the number of transactions the network can process per second, negatively affecting network scalability.

3. Bitcoin’s additional features

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

Segregated Witness, often abbreviated as SegWit, is a protocol upgrade proposal that went live in August 2017.
SegWit separates witness signatures from transaction-related data. Witness signatures in legacy Bitcoin blocks often take more than 50% of the block size. By removing witness signatures from the transaction block, this protocol upgrade effectively increases the number of transactions that can be stored in a single block, enabling the network to handle more transactions per second. As a result, SegWit increases the scalability of Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks like Bitcoin and Litecoin.
SegWit also makes transactions cheaper. Since transaction fees are derived from how much data is being processed by the block producer, the more transactions that can be stored in a 1MB block, the cheaper individual transactions become.
https://preview.redd.it/depya70mf3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=a6499aa2131fbf347f8ffd812930b2f7d66be48e
The legacy Bitcoin block has a block size limit of 1 megabyte, and any change on the block size would require a network hard-fork. On August 1st 2017, the first hard-fork occurred, leading to the creation of Bitcoin Cash (“BCH”), which introduced an 8 megabyte block size limit.
Conversely, Segregated Witness was a soft-fork: it never changed the transaction block size limit of the network. Instead, it added an extended block with an upper limit of 3 megabytes, which contains solely witness signatures, to the 1 megabyte block that contains only transaction data. This new block type can be processed even by nodes that have not completed the SegWit protocol upgrade.
Furthermore, the separation of witness signatures from transaction data solves the malleability issue with the original Bitcoin protocol. Without Segregated Witness, these signatures could be altered before the block is validated by miners. Indeed, alterations can be done in such a way that if the system does a mathematical check, the signature would still be valid. However, since the values in the signature are changed, the two signatures would create vastly different hash values.
For instance, if a witness signature states “6,” it has a mathematical value of 6, and would create a hash value of 12345. However, if the witness signature were changed to “06”, it would maintain a mathematical value of 6 while creating a (faulty) hash value of 67890.
Since the mathematical values are the same, the altered signature remains a valid signature. This would create a bookkeeping issue, as transactions in Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks are documented with these hash values, or transaction IDs. Effectively, one can alter a transaction ID to a new one, and the new ID can still be valid.
This can create many issues, as illustrated in the below example:
  1. Alice sends Bob 1 BTC, and Bob sends Merchant Carol this 1 BTC for some goods.
  2. Bob sends Carols this 1 BTC, while the transaction from Alice to Bob is not yet validated. Carol sees this incoming transaction of 1 BTC to him, and immediately ships goods to B.
  3. At the moment, the transaction from Alice to Bob is still not confirmed by the network, and Bob can change the witness signature, therefore changing this transaction ID from 12345 to 67890.
  4. Now Carol will not receive his 1 BTC, as the network looks for transaction 12345 to ensure that Bob’s wallet balance is valid.
  5. As this particular transaction ID changed from 12345 to 67890, the transaction from Bob to Carol will fail, and Bob will get his goods while still holding his BTC.
With the Segregated Witness upgrade, such instances can not happen again. This is because the witness signatures are moved outside of the transaction block into an extended block, and altering the witness signature won’t affect the transaction ID.
Since the transaction malleability issue is fixed, Segregated Witness also enables the proper functioning of second-layer scalability solutions on the Bitcoin protocol, such as the Lightning Network.

Lightning Network

Lightning Network is a second-layer micropayment solution for scalability.
Specifically, Lightning Network aims to enable near-instant and low-cost payments between merchants and customers that wish to use bitcoins.
Lightning Network was conceptualized in a whitepaper by Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja in 2015. Since then, it has been implemented by multiple companies. The most prominent of them include Blockstream, Lightning Labs, and ACINQ.
A list of curated resources relevant to Lightning Network can be found here.
In the Lightning Network, if a customer wishes to transact with a merchant, both of them need to open a payment channel, which operates off the Bitcoin blockchain (i.e., off-chain vs. on-chain). None of the transaction details from this payment channel are recorded on the blockchain, and only when the channel is closed will the end result of both party’s wallet balances be updated to the blockchain. The blockchain only serves as a settlement layer for Lightning transactions.
Since all transactions done via the payment channel are conducted independently of the Nakamoto consensus, both parties involved in transactions do not need to wait for network confirmation on transactions. Instead, transacting parties would pay transaction fees to Bitcoin miners only when they decide to close the channel.
https://preview.redd.it/cy56icarf3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=b239a63c6a87ec6cc1b18ce2cbd0355f8831c3a8
One limitation to the Lightning Network is that it requires a person to be online to receive transactions attributing towards him. Another limitation in user experience could be that one needs to lock up some funds every time he wishes to open a payment channel, and is only able to use that fund within the channel.
However, this does not mean he needs to create new channels every time he wishes to transact with a different person on the Lightning Network. If Alice wants to send money to Carol, but they do not have a payment channel open, they can ask Bob, who has payment channels open to both Alice and Carol, to help make that transaction. Alice will be able to send funds to Bob, and Bob to Carol. Hence, the number of “payment hubs” (i.e., Bob in the previous example) correlates with both the convenience and the usability of the Lightning Network for real-world applications.

Schnorr Signature upgrade proposal

Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (“ECDSA”) signatures are used to sign transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.
https://preview.redd.it/hjeqe4l7g3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=8014fb08fe62ac4d91645499bc0c7e1c04c5d7c4
However, many developers now advocate for replacing ECDSA with Schnorr Signature. Once Schnorr Signatures are implemented, multiple parties can collaborate in producing a signature that is valid for the sum of their public keys.
This would primarily be beneficial for network scalability. When multiple addresses were to conduct transactions to a single address, each transaction would require their own signature. With Schnorr Signature, all these signatures would be combined into one. As a result, the network would be able to store more transactions in a single block.
https://preview.redd.it/axg3wayag3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=93d958fa6b0e623caa82ca71fe457b4daa88c71e
The reduced size in signatures implies a reduced cost on transaction fees. The group of senders can split the transaction fees for that one group signature, instead of paying for one personal signature individually.
Schnorr Signature also improves network privacy and token fungibility. A third-party observer will not be able to detect if a user is sending a multi-signature transaction, since the signature will be in the same format as a single-signature transaction.

4. Economics and supply distribution

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Nakamoto consensus, and nodes validate blocks via Proof-of-Work mining. The bitcoin token was not pre-mined, and has a maximum supply of 21 million. The initial reward for a block was 50 BTC per block. Block mining rewards halve every 210,000 blocks. Since the average time for block production on the blockchain is 10 minutes, it implies that the block reward halving events will approximately take place every 4 years.
As of May 12th 2020, the block mining rewards are 6.25 BTC per block. Transaction fees also represent a minor revenue stream for miners.
submitted by D-platform to u/D-platform [link] [comments]

هاوینگ بیت کوین

هاوینگ بیت کوین

هاوینگ بیت کوین

هاوینگ بیت کوین ۲۳ اردیبهشت اتفاق خواهد افتاد. اما هاونیگ بیت کوین چیست؟ تاثیر هایونگ بر قیمت بیت کوین چه خواهد بود؟ چه معنایی برای استخراج‌کنندگان و چشم‌انداز بلند مدت ارزهای دیجیتال خواهد داشت؟ برای پاسخ به این سوالات با ما همراه باشید.

این مطلب در یک نگاه …

۰. سه نظریه درباره تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین ۰. شرخی کوتاه از هاوینگ بیت کوین
مفصل‌تر بخوانید … ۱. مقدمه ۲. هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست ؟ ۳. چه کسی زمان‌بندی توزیع بیت کوین را تعیین کرده است؟ چرا؟ ۴. تأثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین چگونه است؟ ۵. چرا استخراج کنندگان پاداش دریافت می‌کنند؟ ۶. چه اتفاقی می‌افتد اگر پاداش بلاک‌ها کم شود؟ ۷. جمع‌بندی

۰. سه نظریه درباره تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

یک

برخی اعتقاد دارند که با کاهش نرخ بیت کوین‌هایی که ماینرها می‌توانند به سیستم تزریق کنند، و با فرض ثابت ماند تقاضا، ارزش بیت کوین بیشتر می‌شود. این تئوری به این شکل است که زمانی که عرضه بیت کوین کاهش می‌یابد، تقاضا برای آن ثابت باقی می‌ماند و قیمت را بالا می‌برد. اگر این نظریه صحیح باشد، ما می‌توانیم افزایش قیمت را بعد از هاوینگ‌های بعدی، مشاهده کنیم.

دو

برخی دیگر استدلال می کنند که با توجه به قابل پیش‌بینی بودن این برنامه و آگاهی همه از آن، تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین پیش از اتفاق افتادن آن رخ می‌دهد. این تئوری می‌گوید که، معامله‌گران مدتهاست که می‌دانند پاداش بلوک بیت کوین کاهش خواهد یافت. این آگاهی به آنها زمان کافی را برای آماده‌سازی ‌می‌دهد. در نتیجه در نتیجه افراد بیت کوین می‌خرند و با افزایش تقاضا، و از طرفی دیگر حرکت گاوی قیمت بیت کوین قبل از هاوینگ بالا می‌رود.

سه

برخی دیگر کمی پیچیده‌تر فکر می‌کنند. آن‌ها می‌گویند که با آگاهی افراد از این اتفاق قابل پیش‌بنی، تقاضا برای بیت کوین بالا می‌رود و سرمایه‌گذران زمان کافی برای آماده‌سازی خواهند داشت. در نتیجه تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین (بخاطر این قابل پیش‌بینی بودن) قبل از رخ دادن اتقاف میافتد. برخی از این پدیده با نام پیشخور شدن یاد می‌کند.
حال این افراد می‌گویند که اگر قرار بود هاوینگ بر قیمت تاثیر داشته باشد، باید تا الان تاثیر خود را می‌گذاشت. در حالی که چنین تاثیری مشاهده نشده است. بنابراین اگر تا کنون تاثیری نداشته است، پس از این به بعد، و با رخ دادن آن در ۲۳ اردیبهشت هم اتفاقی نخواهد افتاد.
۰. اگر وقت ندارید این داستان را بخوانید …

۱

پول، دقیقا مثل همه‌ی کالاهای دیگر است. ارزش یک پول به مقدار عرضه آن، مقداری که از آن وجود دارد و میزان تقاضایش بستگی دارد. دولت‌ها هر زمانی که بخواهند می‌توانند پول چاپ کنند. معمولا بانک‌های مرکزی هر چند ماه یک بار جمع می‌شوند تا تصمیم بگیرند که عرضه پول را، با چاپ آن دوباره تنظیم بکنند یا نه. اما اگه شرایط اضطراری پیش آید، این تصمیم خیلی سریع‌تر گرفته می‌شود. درست مثل همان چیزی که با آمدن کرونا شاهدش بودیم. اما بیت کوین هیچ بانکی مرکزی‌ای یا هیئت مدیری‌ای یا جایی که بتواند کنترلش کند ندارد. پس چگونه بیت کوین تصمیم می‌گیرد که چه قدر بیت کوین چاپ کند؟ در طول فرایندی به اسم هاوینگ!

۲

در سال ۲۰۰۸ ساتوشی ناکاموتو خالق بیت کوین ایده‌ای در سر داشت. چه می‌شد اگر آدم‌ها را به طور کامل از شر دخالت دولت‌ها و مراکز بر روی پول خلاص می‌کردیم و مطابق با یک برنامه مشخص که بیشتر از ۱۰۰ سال طول میکشید پول خاصی را خلق می‌کردیم که توسط خود انسان‌ها کنترل می‌شد؟ این پول احتمالا خسته کننده، قابل پیش بینی و قابل اعتماد می‌بود. چرا که افراد می‌توانستند بر اساس آن برنامه‌ریزی‌های بلندمدتشان را با اعتماد و بدون نگرانی درباره اتفاق‌های ناگهانی یا غیرقابل پیش بینی انجام دهند. اما برای آکه بیت کوین ارزشمند بماند، باید نایاب باشد، دقیقا مثل طلا. ناکاموتو حداکثر تعداد بیت کوین‌ها ممکن رو ۲۱ میلیون تعیین کرد. بنابراین عرضه بیت کوین محدود است و به لطف هاوینگ نرخ عرضه غیرقابل تغییر و قابل پیش‌بینی دارد. اما هاوینگ چگونه کار میکند؟

۳

بیایید اول فرایند استخراج را مرور کنیم. اینگونه فکر کنید که استخراج یه قرعه کشی است که هر ۱۰ دقیقه یک برنده دارد. و ماینرها برای وارد شدن به این قرعه کشی، یک مساله ریاضی را حل میکنند و یک بلیت قرعه کشی به دست میاورند. در اوایل، کامپیوترها برای ایجاد این بلیت‌ها طراحی نشده بودند. بنابراین هر ماینر تعداد بلیت زیادی را نمیتونست برای هر قرعه کشی ایجاد کند. در نیتجه هر کسی می‌توانست با کامپیوترش بلیت به دست آورد و برای شرکت در این قرعه کشی و برنده شدن شانس داشته باشه. در واقع مثلا اگر شما ۳ بلیت به دست میاوردید، برای برنده شدن در قرعه کشی ۳ شانس داشتید. اما الان تو سال ۲۰۲۰ ماشین‌های خاصی برای استخراج وجود دارند و شرکت‌ها انبارهای بزرگی را با این ماشین‌ها پر میکنند. این انبارها در جاهایی از جهان هستند که برق ارزان هستند.

۴

هر ۱۰ دقیقه یک ماینر خوش شانس در این قرعه کشی برنده میشود. و به عنوان پاداش به او بیت کوین داده میشود. در سالاهای اول زمانی که بیت کوین ارزشی نداشت این پاداش ۵۰ بیت کوین در هر ۱۰ دقیقه بود. که به پول الان چیزی حدود ۲۵۰ هزار دلار می‌شد! اما در آن زمان ارزشش حتی کمتر از ۵۰ سنت بوده است! با گذشت زمان و با رخ دادن هاوینگ در هر چهار سال، مقدار این پاداش هم کم شده است. در اولین هاوینگ در سال ۲۰۱۲ پاداش از ۵۰ به ۲۵ رسید و قیمت از ۲ دلار به ۲۷۰ دلار افزایش یافت. در سال ۲۰۱۶ قیمت به ۷۰۰ دلار رسید و تا حباب های سال ۲۰۱۷ و ۲۰۱۸ به رشدش ادامه داد. تو هاونیگ بعدی پاداش به ۶.۲۵ می‌رسد اما معلوم نیست اتفاقی مشابه برای قیمت بیافتد یا نه. هاونیگ تعداد ییت کوین‌هایی که می‌توان در قرعه کشی برنده شد را کاهش می‌دهد. اما همزمان تعداد بلیت‌هایی که در هر قرعه کشی می‌تواند شرکت کند هم بیشتر و بیشتره شده است. شرکت تو این قرعه کشی برای ماینر‌ها از نظر مالی صرفه دارد. چرا که در کنار کاهش پاداش‌ها، ارزش بیت کوین هم بالا رفته است.

۵

بنابراین هاوینگ یک فرایند کند، بلند مدت و قابل پیش بینی برای کاهش نرخ تعداد بیت کوین های جدیدی است که به وجود می‌آیند. این فرایند تا جایی که دیگه استخارج بیت کوین‌های جدید هیج معنایی نداشته باشه ادامه دارد. در طول سال‌ها رقابت بین ماینرها بیشتر و بیشتر شده. و حتی ماینرهایی که به دنبال درامد روزانه هستند هم جذب شده‌اند. همه‌ی این‌ها امنیت شبکه بیت کوین رو بیشتر میکند. هیچ کس نمی‌تواند بگوید که تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت چه خواهد بود و قیمت بعد از هاوینگ بعدی چه قدر بالا می‌رود. برخی انتظار اتفاق‌های بزرگی را دارند. شاید ۶ رقمی شدن بیت کوین! در حالی که دیگران فکر می‌کنند که چون این بار همه از هاونیگ خبر دارند، پس تاثیرش از قبل بر روی قیمت آمده است.

۶

یکی از سوال‌هایی که باقی می‌ماند این است که آیا با کم شدن پاداش‌ها، همچنان استخراج برای ماینرها جذاب می‌ماند؟ یادتان باشد که اگه ماینرها سود نکنند، دیگر استخراج نخواهند کرد. به هر حال آن‌ها محض رضای خدا هزینه‌ای برای برق و ماشین‌ها پرداخت نمی‌کنند. پس اگه قیمت بیت کوین بالا نرود، احتمالا ماینرها هزینه انتقال بیشتری را از کاربران طلب خواهند کرد. که باعث میشود سیستم بیت کوین برای انتقال ارزش گران و پرهزینه باشد.
هاونیگ به طور منظم مثل یک ساعت اتفاق می‌افتد و فارغ از نتیجه نهایی، مکانیزمی جذاب برای جلو بردن سیستم بیت کوین و به طور قطع از خلاقانه‌ترین تجربه‌ها در جهان بلاک چین است.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

مفصل‌تر بخوانید …

۱. مقدمه

شاید در نگاه اول،فکر کنید هاوینگ، اسم یک فیلم ترسناک درباره قتل‌های زنجیره‌ای باشد. در حالی که هاوینگ، نام یکی از جذاب‌ترین اتفاقات در طول تاریخ بیت کوین است. «هاوینگ» معادل لغت «Halving» است. Halving در انگلیسی به معنای نصف شدن است. برای مثال جمله‌ی «the halving of oil price» به معنای نصف شدن قیمت نفت است. خیلی خلاصه منظور از هاوینگ بیت کوین، نصف شدن پاداش هر بلاک است.
در ماه می (حدود ۲۳ اردیبهشت)، تعداد بیت‌کوین‌هایی (BTC) که در هر ۱۰ دقیقه وارد گردش می‌شوند (همان پاداش بلاک) به نصف کاهش می‌یابد و از ۱۲.۵ بیت‌کنوین به ۶.۲۵ بیت‌کوین می‌رسد. این اتفاق به راحتی قابل دیدن و پیش‌بنی است. چرا که هر چهار سال یک بار اتفاق می‌افتد و قبلا هم دو بار اتفاق افتاده است.
طمع رسیدن به ثروت، چیزی است که توجه‌ها را به این اتفاق جلب می‌کند. مقدار بیت‌کوین‌هایی که به سیستم تزریق می‌شود، به ناگهان کاهش پیدا می‌کند. در حالی که بر روی کاغد، تقاضا ثابت خواهد ماند. در نتیجه این اتفاق (و با توجه به نمودار عرضه و تقاضا در اقتصاد) احتمالا قیمت بیت کوین بالا خواهد رفت. به این ترتیب، این رویداد بحث‌های زیادی را درباره پیش بینی قیمت بیت کوین و نحوه پاسخگویی بازار به آن راه انداخته است.
📷نمودار تقاضا و عرضه بیت کوین‌های جدید وارد شده به سیستم (در هر ده دقیقه) پس از رخ دادن هالوینگ
چند نکته: ۱. این نمودار نمودار اصلی عرضه و تقاضای بیت کوین نیست. چرا که حتی با کاهش نرخ تعداد بیت‌کوین‌هایی که به سیستم وارد می‌شود، باز هم میزان عرضه بیت‌کوین افزایش خواهد یافت. عرضه در این نمودار، مربوط به بیت‌کوین‌های جدید است. ۲. معلوم نیست که چه اتفاقی برای تقاضا خواهد افتاد. اما اگر فرض کنیم تقاضا ثابت است، بر روی کاغذ قیمت این بیت‌کوین‌های جدید باید بالا رود. ۳. با بالا رفتن قیمت بیت‌کوین‌های جدید، قیمت کل بیت‌کوین‌های در بازار نیز تحت تاثیر قرار می‌گیرد.
مایکل دوبروسکی (Michael Dubrovsky)، بنیانگذار بخش تحقیق و توسعه در PoWx می‌گوید:
زمانی که استخراج‌کنندگان، بیت‌کوین‌های کمتری برای فروش داشته باشند، در نتیجه بیت‌کوین‌های کمتری برای خرید در دسترس خواهد بود.
اما کاهش دوره‌ای نرخ استخراج بیت کوین، نسبت به هرگونه حرکت کوتاه مدت دیگری ذر قیمت می‌تواند برای عملکرد بیت کوین اهمیت داشته باشد. پاداش بلوک یکی از مولفه های مهم بیت کوین است. چیزی که امنیت سیستم بیت کوین را تضمین می‌کند. با توجه به اینکه در دهه‌های آینده، این پاداش‌ها به صفر می‌رسند، می‌توانند انگیزه‌های اقتصادی برای استخراج بیت کوین را از بین ببرند. چیزی که در نهایت امنیت شبکه بیت کوین را تحیت تاثیر قرار می‌دهد.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

۲. هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست ؟

بیت کوین‌های جدیدی که به عنوان پاداش بلاک، به چرخه بیت‌کوین‌ها وارد می‌شوند، توسط استخراج کنندگان یا ماینرها تولید می‌شود. این استخراج کنندگان از تجهیزات الکترونیکی گران‌قیمتی برای به دست آوردن یا استخراج استفاده می‌کنند. در هر ۲۱۰،۰۰۰ بلاک، یا تقریبا در هر چهار سال، تعداد کل بیت کوین که استخراج کنندگان به طور بالقوه می‌توانند برنده شوند، نصف می‌شود.
📷عرضه بیت کوین و پاداش های بلاکی
در سال ۲۰۰۹، این سیستم با ۵۰ سکه بیت کوین برای پاداش هر بلاک در هر ۱۰ دقیقه شروع به کار کرد. در حال حاضر با گذشت ۲ هاوینگ، این پاداش به ۱۲.۵ بیت کوین رسیده است. این فرایند درزمانی که کل ۲۱ میلیون بیت کوین (احتمالا در سال ۲۱۴۰) استحراج شود به پایان خواهد رسید.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

۳. چه کسی زمان‌بندی توزیع بیت کوین را تعیین کرده است؟ چرا؟

ساتوشی ناکاموتو (Satoshi Nakamoto)! خالق بیت کوین، که البته شاید تنها یک نام مستعار از یک فرد یا یک گروه باشد. او تقریبا یک سال پس از انتشار این نرم افزار به جهان ناپدید شد. بنابراین او، یا آنها (ما از این بعد با «آن‌ها» به او اشاره می‌کنیم) دیگر نیستند تا توضیح دهند که چرا این فرمول خاص را برای افزودن بیت کوین‌های جدید به سیستم انتخاب کردند. (و چرا اصلا تعداد آن‌ها را به ۲۱ میلیون محدود کرده‌اند، چرا مثال عدد ۱۰۰ میلیون را انتخاب نکردند؟!)
اما ایمیل‌های الکترونیکی اولیه که توسط ناکاموتو نوشته است، تا حدی این موضوع را روشن می‌کند. اندکی پس از انتشار مقاله بیت کوین، ناکاموتو به طور خلاصه درباره روش‌های مختلفی که سیاست پولی منتخب آنها (برنامه‌ی زمانی که استخراج کنندگان مطابق با آن پاداش خود را دریافت می‌کنند) عمل خواهد کرد و در مورد شرایطی که این امر می‌تواند منجر به رکود (زمانی که قدرت خرید ارز افزایش پیدا می‌کند) یا تورم (زمانی که قیمت کالاها یا خدماتی که می‌توان با یک ارز خرید کرد افزایش پیدا می‌کند) شود توضیح داد.
در آن زمان، ناکاموتو نمی‌توانست حدس بزند که چند نفر از این پول آنلاین جدید استفاده خواهد کرد. آنها درباره اینکه چرا این فرمول خاص را انتخاب کردند، خیلی کم توضیح دادند: «سکه‌ها به هر حال باید از ابتدا توزیع شوند و به نظر می رسد یک نرخ ثابت بهترین فرمول است.» جمله اصلی ناکاموتو به شکل زیر است.
«Coins have to get initially distributed somehow, and a constant rate seems like the best formula.»
در اکثر ارزهای منتشر شده، یک بانک مرکزی دارای ابزارهایی است که به آن امکان افزودن یا حذف آن ارز از سیستم را می دهد. مثلا بانک مرکزی آمریکا، می‌تواند دلار چاپ کند یا دلارها را از بازار جمع کند. به عنوان مثال اگر اقتصاد در وضع بدی باشد، دولت می‌تواند گردش مالی را افزایش داده و با خرید اوراق بهادار از بانک‌ها به افراد وام‌ دهد. از طرف دیگر، اگر دولت بخواهد دلارها را از اقتصاد خارج کند، می تواند اوراق بهادار را خود را به افراد بفروشد.
در آن زمان، ناکاموتو نمی‌توانست حدس بزند که چند نفر از این پول آنلاین جدید استفاده خواهد کرد. (حتی نمی‌دانست که اصلا کسی استفاده خواهد کرد یا نه)
At the time, Nakamoto couldn’t have known how many people would use the new online money (if anyone).
چه خوب باشد چه بد، بیت کوین کمی با بقیه فرق دارد. مقدار عرضه‌ی این ارز و زمان آن دقیقا مطابق با یک برنامه زمان‌بندی مشخص تعیین شده. و این برنامه غیر قابل تغییر است.
بر خلاف سیاست پولی ارزهای صادر شده دولتی، که از طریق فرآیندهای سیاسی و نهادهای انسانی وضع می‌شود، سیاست پولی بیت کوین توسط کدی که در شبکه پخش می‌شود، تعیین می‌شود. اگر این کد بخواهد تغییر کند، نیاز به یک هماهنگی و توافق جمعی در بین کل جامعه و شبکه بیت کوین است.
بلاکچین دات کام (Blockchain.com) در یکی از مطالب خود که در وبلاگش پیش از هاوینگ سال ۲۰۱۶ منتشر شد می‌گوید: «بر خلاف اکثر ارزهای ملی که می‌شناسیم، مانند دلار یا یورو، بیت کوین با یک عرضه ثابت و برنامه زمان‌بندی قابل پیش‌بینی طراحی شده است. فقط ۲۱ میلیون بیت کوین وجود خواهد داشت. این تعداد از پیش تعیین شده باعث محدود شدن آن می‌شود. این محدودیت و کمیابی بیت کوین (مانند طلا) در کنار کاربرد آن است که باعث حفظ ارزش آن در بازار می‌شود.»
یکی دیگر از جنبه های منحصر به فرد بیت کوین، برنامه ناکاموتو برای پاداش بلاک‌ها است. پاداش بلاک‌ها در طول زمان کاهش پیدا می‌کند. این موضوع یکی دیگر از تفاوت‌های بیت کوین با سیستم های مالی مدرن است. سیستم‌هایی که در آن بانک های مرکزی عرضه پول را کنترل می‌کنند. برخلاف بیت کوین، عرضه دلار از سال ۲۰۰۰ تا کنون حدودا سه برابر شده است.

ناکاموتو سرنخ‌هایی را از این که بیت کوین را به دلایل سیاسی به وجود آورده جای گذاشته است.

اولین بلاک بلاکچین بیتکوین Genesis block است. این بلاک که ده ساله شده در ۳ ژانویه ۲۰۰۹ توسط ساتوشی استخراج شد. نکته جالب پیام مخفی­ است که ساتوشی در آن قرار داده. یکی از پارامتر‌هایی که در هر بلاکی ذخیره می‌شود کوین­ بیس (Coinbase) نام دارد. کوی­ن‌بیس پارامتری است که میزان پاداش ماینرها به ازای ساخت یک بلاک را معین می‌کند. اما در اولین بلاک یا همان بلاک جنسیس، می­‌توان هر متغییری را در آن جای داد. نکته جالب این است که ناکاموتو رشته­ ی (string) زیر را در این بلاک جای داده است:
{۰۴FFFF001D0104455468652054696D65732030332F4A616E2F323030 39204368616E63656C6C6F72206F6E206272696E6B206F66207365636 F6E64206261696C6F757420666F722062616E6B73}
پس از رمزگشایی این رشته متن زیر به دست می‌آید.
{The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks}.
که معنای آن این است: «روزنامه The Times در تاریخ ۳ ژانویه ۲۰۰۹ رئیس خزانه‌داری [انگلستان] در آستانه‌ی اهدای کمک مالی به بانک‌ها است.». این پیام بی‌ثباتی­‌های اقتصادی که بخاطر استفاده­‌ی گسترده از سیستم بانکداری ذخیره کسری به وجود آمده است را سرزنش می‌کند. در سیستم ذخیره کسری، بانک می‌تواند پول افراد را به افراد یا شرکت­‌های دیگر وام دهد. در واقع، می‌تواند پول تولید کند!
بسیاری این پیام را به عنوان نشانه‌ای از عقاید و اهداف سیاسی ناکاموتو تفسیر می‌کنند. بیت کوین در صورت پذیرفته شدن توسط جوامع، می‌تواند قدرت پولی را که بانک‌ها و دولت‌ها بر سیاست‌های پولی دارند را کاهش دهد. هیچ نهاد مرکزی نمی‌تواند بیت کوین را خارج از برنامه دقیق آن ایجاد کند.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

۴. تأثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین چگونه است؟

بسیاری از افراد فکر می‌کنندکه تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین مثبت است. تا جایی که آن را تا حد بسیار زیادی افزایش می‌دهد. برای همین موضوع نیز توجه خیلی‌ها به هاوینگ جلب شده است. اما حقیقت این است که، هیچ کس نمی‌داند چه اتفاقی خواهد افتاد. بیت کوین تاکنون دو بار هاوینگ را تجربه کرده است.
📷جدول زمان‌بندی هاوینگ‌های بیت کوین
هاوینگ سال ۲۰۱۲ برای اولین بار نشان داد که بازار چگونه به آن واکنش نشان خواهد داد. تا آن زمان، جامعه بیت کوین خیلی دقیق نمی‌دانست (یا همه‌ی آن‌ها نمی‌دانستند) که چگونه یک کاهش ناگهانی در پاداش می‌تواند روی شبکه تاثیر بگذارد. تنها اندکی پس از هاوینگ بود که دیدند با هاوینگ قیمت شروع به افزایش کرد.
دومین هاوینگ که در سال ۲۰۱۶ رخ داد، کاملا پیش‌بینی شده بود. درست مانند همین هاونیگی که در پیش است. مثال الان که برخی از سایت‌ها مانند coindesk.com یک روز شمار برای آن قرار دادند، در آن زمان نیز این روز شمار وجود داشت. همه به دنبال آن بودند تا ببیند هاوینگ چه تاثیری بر قیمت خواهد داشت.
در تاریخ ۱۶ ژوئیه ۲۰۱۶، روزی که هاونیگ دوم رخ داد، قیمت ۱۰ درصد کاهش یافت و به ۶۱۰ دلار رسید، اما سپس به همان جایی که قبلا بود بازگشت. شواهد اندکی وجود داشت که نشان می‌داد کاهش ناگهانی نرخ استخراج بیت کوین تاثیر طولانی مدتی بر قیمت داشته باشد. در آن زمان، جیکوب دونلیلی تا آنجا پیش رفت که این رویداد را «عذاب کسالت آور» خواند.

.

در حالی که تاثیر فوری بر قیمت بیت کوین اندک بود، بازار به تدریج نسبت به هاوینگ واکنش نشان داد و قیمیتش افزایش پیدا کرد. برخی معتقدند که این افزایش قیمت نتیجه با تاخیری از هاوینگ بوده است. این تئوری به این شکل است که زمانی که عرضه بیت کوین کاهش می‌یابد، تقاضا برای آن ثابت باقی می‌ماند و قیمت را بالا می‌برد. اگر این نظریه صحیح باشد، ما می‌توانیم افزایش قیمت‌های مشابه را بعد از هاوینگ‌های بعدی، از جمله هاوینگ امسال مشاهده کنیم.
برخی دیگر استدلال می کنند که با توجه به قابل پیش‌بینی بودن این برنامه و آگاهی همه از آن، این تغییر در نرخ استخراج پیش از آنکه اتفاق بیافتد بر قیمت تاثیر خواهد داشت. آن‌ها تنها معتقند که این تاثیر از قبل گذاشته می‌شود. این تئوری می‌گوید که، معامله‌گران مدتهاست که می‌دانند پاداش بلوک بیت کوین کاهش خواهد یافت. این آگاهی به آنها زمان کافی را برای آماده‌سازی ‌می‌دهد. در نتیجه در نتیجه افراد بیت کوین می‌خرند و با افزایش تقاضا، و از طرفی دیگر حرکت گاوی قیمت بیت کوین قبل از هاوینگ بالا می‌رود.
برخی دیگر کمی پیچیده‌تر فکر می‌کنند. آن‌ها می‌گویند که با آگاهی افراد از این اتفاق قابل پیش‌بنی، تقاضا برای بیت کوین بالا می‌رود و سرمایه‌گذران زمان کافی برای آماده‌سازی خواهند داشت. در نتیجه تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین (بخاطر این قابل پیش‌بینی بودن) قبل از رخ دادن اتقاف میافتد. برخی از این پدیده با نام پیشخور شدن یاد می‌کند.
حال این افراد می‌گویند که اگر قرار بود هاوینگ بر قیمت تاثیر داشته باشد، باید تا الان تاثیر خود را می‌گذاشت. در حالی که چنین تاثیری مشاهده نشده است. بنابراین اگر تا کنون تاثیری نداشته است، پس از این به بعد، و با رخ دادن آن در ۲۳ اردیبهشت هم اتفاقی نخواهد افتاد.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

۵. چرا استخراج کنندگان پاداش دریافت می‌کنند؟

دلیل آن این است که، بدون این پپاداش بلاک‌ها، بیت کوین اصلا کار نمی‌کند.
هسو (Hasu) به عنوان یک محقق مستقل می‌گوید که بیت‌کوین، تنها در صورتی می‌تواند به فعالیت خود ادامه دهد که بلاکچین آن بتواند پاسخ به دو سوال را بدهد. چه کسی مالک چه چیزی است، و در چه زمانی مالک آن چیز است. بخش اول، «چه کسی مالک چه چیزی است؟» با رمزنگاری حل می‌شود. فقط صاحب یک کلید خصوصی می‌تواند بیت کوین را خرج کند.
هسو توضیح می‌دهد: «بخش دوم، یعنی چه زمانی صاحب آن چیز است، چالش بزرگی است. اگر به این سوال پاسخ داده نشود، مردم می‌توانند بیت کوین‌های خود را دو بار خرج (double-spend) کنند.
بدون پاداش بلاک، شبکه در هرج و مرج خواهد بود. هسو توضیح می‌دهد که استخراج‌کنندگان، در صورت داشتن قدرت محاسباتی کافی، خودشان می‌توانند به دو طریق به شبکه حمله کنند! اول با دوبار خرج کردن بیت ‌کوین‌ها و دوم با متوقف کردن معاملات و جلوگیری ار انجام شدن آن‌ها. اما باید گفت که آن‌ها هیچ کدام از این کارها را نمی‌کنند. چرا که در این صورت پاداش بلاک را از دست خواهند داد.
به عبارت دیگر ، در صورت عدم پیروی از قوانین ، استخراج کنندگان پول از دست می‌دهند
هرچه قدرت پردازشگرهای محاسباتی بیشتری به سمت بیت کوین هدایت شود، حمله به آن سخت تر می‌شود. چرا که یک مهاجم برای اجرای حمله بخ شبکه، نیاز به بخش قابل توجهی از این قدرت پردازشی، معروف به hashrate دارد. هرچه استخراج کنندگان از طریق پاداش‌های بلوکی بتوانند درآمد بیشتری کسب کنند، قدرت استخراج بیشتری به سمت بیت کوین می‌آید و به این ترتیب از شبکه محافظت می‌شود.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

۶. چه اتفاقی می‌افتد اگر پاداش بلاک‌ها کم شود؟

دقیقا به همین خاطر است که کاهش دوره‌ای پاداش‌ها به یک نگرانی و مساله تبدیل می‌شود. اگر پاداش بلاک‌ها کاهش یابد، امنیت شبکه چگونه تامین خواهد شد؟!
استخارج کنندگان برای ادامه دادن به استخراج (یا در واقع تایید یا رد تراکنش‌های شبکه) باید انگیزه یا محرک داشته باشند. آنها باید حقوق بگیرند 🙂 . هیچ استخراج کننده‌ای محض رضای خدا رایانه‌های گرانقیمت و هزینه برق و انرژی خود را صرف این کار نمی‌کند. این در حالی است که بالاخره در نهایت این پاداش به صفر می‌رسد (در سال ۲۱۴۰). ولی باید گفت که علاوه بر پاداش بلاک‌ها، استخراج کنندگان از محل هزینه تراکنش (Transaction fees) نیز درآمد دارند. انتظار می‌رود با سقوط پاداش بلاک‌ها، هزینه‌های انتقال به منبع مهمی از پاداش استخراج کنندگان تبدیل شود.
ناکاموتو می‌نویسد: «در طی چند دهه وقتی که پاداش بلاک‌ها خیلی کم شود، هزینه تراکنش تبدیل به منبع صلی درآمد برای نودهای شبکه (یا استخراج کنندگان)‌ می‌شود. من مطمئن هستم که در طی ۲۰ سال، حجم معاملات یا خیلی خیلی زیاد باشد، یا اصلا معامله‌ای در کار نباشد!»
اما مدت طولانی است که محققان بیت کوین در حال بررسی این موضوع هستند که آیا هزینه تراکنش برای انگیزه دادن برای استخراج کنندگان کافی هست یا نه. یک دیدگاه آت است که هزینه تراکنش‌ها باید در طول زمان افزایش یابد تا بتوان امنیت شبکه را تضمین کرد.
پیش بینی اینکه چه اتفاقی خواهد افتاد غیرممکن است، اما اگر سیستمی می‌خواهیم که بتواند ۱۰۰ سال عمر کند، باید برای بدترین حالت آماده باشیم.
دوبروسکی (Dubrovsky) می‌گوید: «حل این مشکل بدون استفاده از هزینه‌های تراکنش بسیار بالا ممکن نست. چرا که شبکه بیت کوین نمی‌تواند تعداد تراکنش‌های زیادی را در زمان انجام دهد، بنابراین باید از محل همان تراکنش‌های کم، هزینه تراکنش بالای را دریفات کند.»
همانطور که در بالا گفته شد، این پاداش‌های استخراج است که قدرت محاسبات بیشتری را به بیت کوین می‌کشاند، و آن را در برابر حمله‌هایی که سعی دارند قوانین شبکه را زیر پا بگذارند حفظ کند. در واقع، علت آنکه استخراج کنندگان استخراج می‌کنند، به دست آوردن پاداش شبکه است، نه هزینه تراکنش‌ها. محل اصلی درآمد پاداش اتس. معلوم نیست که آیا پاداش‌های کم در آینده حتی در صورت وجود هزینه‌های شبکه، برای استخراج کندگان کافی باشد یا نه.
هسو می‌گوید: «من فکر نمی‌کنم که این هاوینگ امنیت شبکه بیت کوین را به میزان قابل توجهی کاهش دهد. اما در ۸ یا ۱۲ سال، این موضوع واقعا مهم خواهد شد.»
بخشی از مشکل این است که با وجود گذشت بیش از یک دهه از تولد بیت کوین، هنوز هم بازار در حال محاسبه هزینه‌ی واقعی محافظت محافظت از شبکه در برابر مهاجمان است.
دوبروسکی (Dubrovsky) بحث می‌کند که: «هیچ کسی نمی‌داند که برای امن نگه داشتن شبکه بیت‌کوین، چه سطح از امنیت توسط استخارج کنندگان نیاز است. در حال حاضر، بیت کوین چیزی در حدود ۵ میلیارد دلار گردش مالی دارد و تا کنون هیچ حمله موفقی صورت نگرفته است. با این حال، هیچ پیش‌بینی از ارزش و قیمت این امنیت وجود ندارد. ممکن است بیت کوین بیش از حد امنیت دارد و بیش از حد به استخارج کنندگان پرداخت می‌کند. برای پیدا کردن حداقل امنیت مورد نیاز برای جلوگیری از حملات، باید پاداش‌های استخراج کنندگان را تا جای که حملات موفقی صورت گیرد کاهش داد. حال هیچ کسی نمی‌داند که با کاهش پاداش بلاک‌ها، و از بین رفتن انگیزه و محرک استخارج کنندگان، چه بلایی به سر امنیت شبکه خواهد آمد»
او ادامه می‌دهد: «مطمئنا این موضوع برای بیت کوین فاجعه‌بار خواهد بود، اما اگر پاداش کاهش یابد و جامعه بیت کوین کاری برای آن نکند، واقعا رخ دادن چنین سناریویی محتمل است.»
هسو می‌گوید که «امیدوار است» که هزینه تراکنش‌ها به اندازه‌ای کافی باشد که امنیت شبکه در آخر حفظ شود.
هسو می‌گوید: «انگیزه حمله به شبکه بیت کوین، نسبت به ۵ سال پیش بیشتر است. در حال حاضر [رئیس جمهور ایالات متحده] ترامپ، [رئیس جمهور شی جینپینگ] و دیگر رهبران جهان از بیت کوین انتقاد می‌کنند. هرچه بیت کوین بیشتر رشد کند، بیشتر ممکن است که مورد حمله قرار گیرد.»
این موضوع البته در حال حاضر شاید خیلی مهم نباشد، اما چند سال دیگر واقعا مهم خواهد شد. هسو گفت: «پیش بینی اینکه چه اتفاقی خواهد افتاد غیرممکن است، اما اگر ما سیستمی را می‌خواهیم که ۱۰۰ سال عمر کند، باید برای بدترین حالت آماده باشیم.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

۷. جمع‌بندی

هاوینگ، یک فرایند بلندمدت، خسته‌کننده و قابل‌پیش‌بینی، برای حفظ ارزش بیت کوین در طول زمان، و کنترل تورم حاصل از عرضه بیت کوین‌های جدید است. هاوینگ این کار را با کند کردن نرخ توزیع در طول زمان انجام می‌دهد. تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت، در دوبار قبلی مثبت بوده است. اما اینکه آیا این بار نیز تاثیر مثبتی خواهد داشت، جای سوال دارد.
منابع: ۱. چرا هاوینگ احتمال دارد تاثیری بر قیمت نداشته باشد؟ ۲. هاوینگ چیست؟
submitted by Rabexio to u/Rabexio [link] [comments]

I recently recounted the history of the block size controversy for someone and thought I'd repost it here

Bitcoin development was initially led by an anonymous figure named Satoshi Nakamoto who created the project "Bitcoin: a Peer-to-peer Electronic Cash System"
The project mostly languished in obscurity until in late 2010 it was revealed that Bitcoin was being used to evade the ban on Wikileaks contributions. (A good summary of Bitcoin's early history can be found here.)
Satoshi was opposed to Bitcoin being used for something as controversial as funding Wikileaks, and in one of his last messages, wrote "It would have been nice to get this attention in any other context. WikiLeaks has kicked the hornet's nest, and the swarm is headed towards us." (link). Satoshi vanished shortly thereafter.
When Satoshi disappeared, he left the project effectively in the control of Gavin Andresen, one of the early contributors to the project. Gavin has been characterized as something of a naive academic. It wasn't long before Gavin had been approached by the CIA and agreed to visit and do a presentation. So we know that Bitcoin was on the CIA's radar by 2011.
Bitcoin-as-introduced had an Achilles heel. To prevent a specific kind of denial-of-service attack, Satoshi had added a "block size limit" to prevent flooding attacks. Satoshi's plan was to raise the limit as usage increased. Satoshi and the early Bitcoiners such as myself did not envision that the limit might itself be a vulnerability. A near-complete history of the block size limit controversy is here. I'll attempt to summarize my experience with some references.
Now it's almost 2020, and by now we've all become much more attuned to the scope of what three-letter-agencies have been doing to manipulate social media platforms. But in 2012 that was tinfoil-hat stuff across most of the internet.
In 2012, the Bitcoin subreddit was one of the key places people went for discussion about what was happening in Bitcoin. That, and the bitcointalk forum. The history of what happened has been well documented with sources in places like here and here.
The TLDR is
Throughout all of this, Blockstream steadfastly argued that it didn't control the Bitcoin Core software. Blockstream pointed to Chaincode Labs who funded several key bitcoin developers and the MIT Media Labs "Digital Currency Initiative" who funded Gavin, Cory, and Wladimir. Gavin and Wladimir in particular had the authority to merge changes into the Bitcoin Core software and as such effectively could decide what did and did not go into the software. As an ostensibly academic organization, Gavin and Wladimir etc could act with intellectual honesty and without coercion.
Except Gavin left the Digital Currency Initiative in 2017, saying that while he wasn't pressured to quit, he "didn't want to feel obligated to any person or organization."
Fast forward to 2019, and we learn the fascinating news that the MIT Media Labs were funded in part by none other than Jeffrey Epstein, who it turns out just so happened to be a staunch advocate of the Blockstream approach. So really, Bitcoin development was corralled: Blockstream was paying a bunch of devs, and Blockstream-Friendly MIT Media Labs were paying the others.
If you're still reading this, you probably wonder what it is about the Blockstream strategy that is so "bad." Aren't they just proposing a different way to solve Bitcoin's problems?
The original idea for Bitcoin was a "peer to peer cash system" - - the idea being that if Alice wants to buy something from Bob, she can just give him some tokens - - just like cash.
The new vision of bitcoin promoted by Blockstream and Core is "store of value". Under this model, you buy Bitcoins like you might speculate on gold - you buy some and you hold it. Later, if you want to purchase something, you sell your Bitcoins for some other payment method (or use an IOU against a deposit, just like a bank), and use that for purchases.
It should be apparent after a moment of thought that the original concept (Alice hands Bob some cash which Bob can then spend how he likes) is vastly more disruptive than the model in which Alice buys Bitcoin on a government-regulated exchange, holds them hoping they'll appreciate in value, and then sells them for Euros or dollars. In model one, the currency is essentially outside the domain of gatekeepers, and could completely disintermediate the entire existing financial system just like Napster for money. In model two, Bitcoin is no more disruptive than shares of a gold fund.
submitted by jessquit to btc [link] [comments]

Mockingbird X.0

Imagine if there was one desk that all stories could cross so that, at 4am, a media plan could be decided upon and disseminated where all news outlets coordinated to set the goalposts of debate and hyper focused on specific issues to drive a narrative to control how you vote and how you spend money; where Internet shills were given marching orders in tandem to what was shown on television, printed in newspapers and spread throughout articles on the World Wide Web.
https://i.imgur.com/Elnci0M.png
In the past, we had Operation Mockingbird, where the program was supremely confident that it could control stories around the world, even in instructions to cover up any story about a possible “Yeti” sighting, should it turn out they were real.
https://i.imgur.com/121LXqy.png
If, in 1959, the government was confident in its ability to control a story about a Yeti, then what is their level of confidence in controlling stories, today?
https://i.imgur.com/jQFVYew.png
https://i.imgur.com/ZKMYGJj.png
In fact, we have a recent example of a situation similar to the Yeti. When Bill Clinton and Loretta Lynch met on the TARMAC to spike the Hillary email investigation, the FBI was so confident it wasn’t them, that their entire focus was finding the leaker, starting with searching within the local PD. We have documentation that demonstrates the state of mind of the confidence the upper levels of the FBI have when dealing with the media.
https://i.imgur.com/IbjDOkI.png
https://i.imgur.com/NH86ozU.png
The marriage between mainstream media and government is a literal one and this arrangement is perfectly legal.
https://i.imgur.com/OAd4vpf.png
But, this problem extends far beyond politics; the private sector, the scientific community, even advice forums are shilled heavily. People are paid to cause anxiety, recommend people break up and otherwise sow depression and nervousness. This is due to a correlating force that employs “systems psychodynamics”, focusing on “tension centered” strategies to create “organizational paradoxes” by targeting people’s basic assumptions about the world around them to create division and provide distraction.
https://i.imgur.com/6OEWYFN.png
https://i.imgur.com/iG4sdD4.png
https://i.imgur.com/e89Rx6B.png
https://i.imgur.com/uotm9Cg.png
https://i.imgur.com/74wt9tD.png
In this day and age, it is even easier to manage these concepts and push a controlled narrative from a central figure than it has ever been. Allen & Co is a “boutique investment firm” that managed the merger between Disney and Fox and operates as an overseeing force for nearly all media and Internet shill armies, while having it’s fingers in sports, social media, video games, health insurance, etc.
https://i.imgur.com/zlpBh3c.png
https://i.imgur.com/e5ZvFFJ.png
Former director of the CIA and Paul Brennan’s former superior George Tenet, holds the reigns of Allen & Co. The cast of characters involves a lot of the usual suspects.
https://i.imgur.com/3OlrX7G.png
In 1973, Allen & Company bought a stake in Columbia Pictures. When the business was sold in 1982 to Coca-Cola, it netted a significant profit. Since then, Herbert Allen, Jr. has had a place on Coca-Cola's board of directors.
Since its founding in 1982, the Allen & Company Sun Valley Conference has regularly drawn high-profile attendees such as Bill Gates, Warren Buffett, Rupert Murdoch, Barry Diller, Michael Eisner, Oprah Winfrey, Robert Johnson, Andy Grove, Richard Parsons, and Donald Keough.
Allen & Co. was one of ten underwriters for the Google initial public offering in 2004. In 2007, Allen was sole advisor to Activision in its $18 billion merger with Vivendi Games. In 2011, the New York Mets hired Allen & Co. to sell a minority stake of the team. That deal later fell apart. In November 2013, Allen & Co. was one of seven underwriters on the initial public offering of Twitter. Allen & Co. was the adviser of Facebook in its $19 billion acquisition of WhatsApp in February 2014.
In 2015, Allen & Co. was the advisor to Time Warner in its $80 billion 2015 merger with Charter Communications, AOL in its acquisition by Verizon, Centene Corporation in its $6.8 billion acquisition of Health Net, and eBay in its separation from PayPal.
In 2016, Allen & Co was the lead advisor to Time Warner in its $108 billion acquisition by AT&T, LinkedIn for its merger talks with Microsoft, Walmart in its $3.3 billion purchase of Jet.com, and Verizon in its $4.8 billion acquisition of Yahoo!. In 2017, Allen & Co. was the advisor to Chewy.com in PetSmart’s $3.35 billion purchase of the online retailer.
Allen & Co throws the Sun Valley Conference every year where you get a glimpse of who sows up. Harvey Weinstein, though a past visitor, was not invited last year.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allen_%26_Company_Sun_Valley_Conference
Previous conference guests have included Bill and Melinda Gates, Warren and Susan Buffett, Tony Blair, Google founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin, Allen alumnus and former Philippine Senator Mar Roxas, Google Chairman Eric Schmidt, Quicken Loans Founder & Chairman Dan Gilbert, Yahoo! co-founder Jerry Yang, financier George Soros, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg, Media Mogul Rupert Murdoch, eBay CEO Meg Whitman, BET founder Robert Johnson, Time Warner Chairman Richard Parsons, Nike founder and chairman Phil Knight, Dell founder and CEO Michael Dell, NBA player LeBron James, Professor and Entrepreneur Sebastian Thrun, Governor Chris Christie, entertainer Dan Chandler, Katharine Graham of The Washington Post, Diane Sawyer, InterActiveCorp Chairman Barry Diller, Linkedin co-founder Reid Hoffman, entrepreneur Wences Casares, EXOR and FCA Chairman John Elkann, Sandro Salsano from Salsano Group, and Washington Post CEO Donald E. Graham, Ivanka Trump and Jared Kushner, and Oprah Winfrey.
https://i.imgur.com/VZ0OtFa.png
George Tenet, with the reigns of Allen & Co in his hands, is able to single-handedly steer the entire Mockingbird apparatus from cable television to video games to Internet shills from a singular location determining the spectrum of allowable debate. Not only are they able to target people’s conscious psychology, they can target people’s endocrine systems with food and pornography; where people are unaware, on a conscious level, of how their moods and behavior are being manipulated.
https://i.imgur.com/mA3MzTB.png
"The problem with George Tenet is that he doesn't seem to care to get his facts straight. He is not meticulous. He is willing to make up stories that suit his purposes and to suppress information that does not."
"Sadly but fittingly, 'At the Center of the Storm' is likely to remind us that sometimes what lies at the center of a storm is a deafening silence."
https://i.imgur.com/YHMJnnP.png
Tenet joined President-elect Bill Clinton's national security transition team in November 1992. Clinton appointed Tenet Senior Director for Intelligence Programs at the National Security Council, where he served from 1993 to 1995. Tenet was appointed Deputy Director of Central Intelligence in July 1995. Tenet held the position as the DCI from July 1997 to July 2004. Citing "personal reasons," Tenet submitted his resignation to President Bush on June 3, 2004. Tenet said his resignation "was a personal decision and had only one basis—in fact, the well-being of my wonderful family—nothing more and nothing less. In February 2008, he became a managing director at investment bank Allen & Company.
https://i.imgur.com/JnGHqOS.png
We have the documentation that demonstrates what these people could possibly be doing with all of these tools of manipulation at their fingertips.
The term for it is “covert political action” for which all media put before your eyes is used to serve as a veneer… a reality TV show facade of a darker modus operandum.
https://i.imgur.com/vZC4D29.png
https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol36no3/html/v36i3a05p_0001.htm
It is now clear that we are facing an implacable enemy whose avowed objective is world domination by whatever means and at whatever costs. There are no rules in such a game. Hitherto acceptable norms of human conduct do not apply. If the US is to survive, longstanding American concepts of "fair play" must be reconsidered. We must develop effective espionage and counterespionage services and must learn to subvert, sabotage and destroy our enemies by more clever, more sophisticated means than those used against us. It may become necessary that the American people be made acquainted with, understand and support this fundamentally repugnant philosophy.
http://www.nbcnews.com/id/3340677/t/cia-operatives-shadowy-war-force/
Intelligence historian Jeffrey T. Richelson says the S.A. has covered a variety of missions. The group, which recently was reorganized, has had about 200 officers, divided among several groups: the Special Operations Group; the Foreign Training Group, which trains foreign police and intelligence officers; the Propaganda and Political Action Group, which handles disinformation; the Computer Operations Group, which handles information warfare; and the Proprietary Management Staff, which manages whatever companies the CIA sets up as covers for the S.A.
Scientology as a CIA Political Action Group – “It is a continuing arrangement…”: https://mikemcclaughry.wordpress.com/2015/08/25/scientology-as-a-cia-political-action-group-it-is-a-continuing-arrangement/
…Those operations we inaugurated in the years 1955-7 are still secret, but, for present purposes, I can say all that’s worth saying about them in a few sentences – after, that is, I offer these few words of wisdom. The ‘perfect’ political action operation is, by definition, uneventful. Nothing ‘happens’ in it. It is a continuing arrangement, neither a process nor a series of actions proceeding at a starting point and ending with a conclusion.
CIA FBI NSA Personnel Active in Scientology: https://i.imgur.com/acu2Eti.png
When you consider the number of forces that can be contained within a single “political action group” in the form on a “boutique investment firm,” where all sides of political arguments are predetermined by a selected group of actors who have been planted, compromised or leveraged in some way in order to control the way they spin their message.
https://i.imgur.com/tU4MD4S.png
The evidence of this coordinated effort is overwhelming and the “consensus” that you see on TV, in sports, in Hollywood, in the news and on the Internet is fabricated.
Under the guise of a fake account a posting is made which looks legitimate and is towards the truth is made - but the critical point is that it has a VERY WEAK PREMISE without substantive proof to back the posting. Once this is done then under alternative fake accounts a very strong position in your favour is slowly introduced over the life of the posting. It is IMPERATIVE that both sides are initially presented, so the uninformed reader cannot determine which side is the truth. As postings and replies are made the stronger 'evidence' or disinformation in your favour is slowly 'seeded in.'
Thus the uninformed reader will most likely develop the same position as you, and if their position is against you their opposition to your posting will be most likely dropped. However in some cases where the forum members are highly educated and can counter your disinformation with real facts and linked postings, you can then 'abort' the consensus cracking by initiating a 'forum slide.'
When you find yourself feeling like common sense and common courtesy aren’t as common as they ought to be, it is because there is a massive psychological operation controlled from the top down to ensure that as many people as possible are caught in a “tension based” mental loop that is inflicted on them by people acting with purpose to achieve goals that are not in the interest of the general population, but a method of operating in secret and corrupt manner without consequences.
Notice that Jeffrey Katzenberg, of Disney, who is intertwined with Allen & Co funds the Young Turks. He is the perfect example of the relationship between media and politics.
Katzenberg has also been involved in politics. With his active support of Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama, he was called "one of Hollywood's premier political kingmakers and one of the Democratic Party's top national fundraisers."
With cash from Jeffrey Katzenberg, The Young Turks looks to grow paid subscribers:
https://digiday.com/media/with-cash-from-katzenberg-the-young-turks-look-to-grow-paid-subscribers/
Last week, former DreamWorks Animation CEO Jeffrey Katzenberg’s new mobile entertainment company WndrCo was part of a $20 million funding round in TYT Network, which oversees 30 news and commentary shows covering politics, pop culture, sports and more. This includes the flagship “The Young Turks” program that streams live on YouTube every day. Other investors in the round included venture capital firms Greycroft Partners, E.ventures and 3L Capital, which led the round. This brings total funding for Young Turks to $24 million.
How Hollywood's Political Donors Are Changing Strategies for the Trump Era:
https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/features/hollywood-political-donors-are-changing-strategy-post-trump-1150545
Hollywood activism long has been depicted as a club controlled by a handful of powerful white men: Katzenberg, Spielberg, Lear, David Geffen, Haim Saban and Bob Iger are the names most often mentioned. But a new generation of power brokers is ascendant, including J.J. Abrams and his wife, Katie McGrath, cited for their personal donations and bundling skills; Shonda Rhimes, who held a get-out-the-vote rally at USC's Galen Center on Sept. 28 that drew 10,000 people; CAA's Darnell Strom, who has hosted events for Nevada congresswoman Jacky Rosen and Arizona congresswoman Kyrsten Sinema; and former Spotify executive Troy Carter, who held three fundraisers for Maryland gubernatorial candidate Ben Jealous (Carter also was a fundraiser for President Obama).
Soros Group Buys Viacom's DreamWorks Film Library:
https://www.forbes.com/2006/03/17/soros-viacom-dreamworks-cx_gl_0317autofacescan11.html#541a895f1f22
Viacom, after splitting off from Les Moonves Les Moonves ' CBS , still holds Paramount Pictures, and that movie studio in December agreed to acquire DreamWorks SKG, the creative shop founded by the Hollywood triumvirate of Steven Spielberg, David Geffen and Jeffrey Katzenberg (a former exec at The Walt Disney Co.). DreamWorks Animation had been spun off into a separate company.
Now it's time for Freston to make back some money--and who better to do a little business with than George Soros? The billionaire financier leads a consortium of Soros Strategic Partners LP and Dune Entertainment II LLC, which together are buying the DreamWorks library--a collection of 59 flicks, including Saving Private Ryan, Gladiator, and American Beauty.
The money you spend on media and junk food and in taxes goes to these groups who then decide how best to market at you so that they decide how you vote by creating a fake consensus to trick into thinking that you want something other than what is best for you; but will inevitably result in more money being funneled to the top, creating further separation between the super rich and the average person. The goal will be to assert creeping authoritarianism by generating outrage against policies and issues they hate. Part of manipulating your basic assumptions is also to use schadenfreude (think canned laughter on TV) against characters who support the cause that might actually do you the most good (which reaffirms and strengthens your confirmation biased along predetermined political lines).
https://i.imgur.com/PW1cRtj.png
We have a population being taught to hate socialism and love capitalism when the truth is no country is practicing either. These terms are merely disguises for political oligarchies where the collection of wealth is less about getting themselves rich and more about keeping everyone else poor.
What can you guess about the world around you if it turned out that every consensus that was forced on you was fake?
How much money would it take to make it look like 51% of the Internet believed in completely idiotic ideas? Combine shill operations with automation and AI’s, and the cost becomes a good investment relative to the return when measured in political power.
Even the people who are well intentioned and very vocal do not have to consciously be aware that they are working for a political action group. A covert political group will always prefer an unwitting tool to help push their agenda, so that they can remain in the shadows.
FDA Admonishes Drug Maker Over Kim Kardashian Instagram Endorsement https://www.forbes.com/sites/davidkroll/2015/08/11/fda-spanks-drug-maker-over-kim-kardashian-instagram-endorsement/#25174a29587b
The OSS files offer details about other agents than famous chef, Julia Child; including Supreme Court Justice Arthur Goldberg, major league catcher Moe Berg, historian Arthur Schlesinger Jr., and actor Sterling Hayden. http://www.nbcnews.com/id/26186498/ns/us_news-security/t/julia-child-cooked-double-life-spy/
USA Today: Businesses and organizations may refer to it as a tool for competitive advantage and marketing; but make no mistake http://archive.is/37tK3
Shareblue accounts caught in /politics posting links to Shareblue without disclosing their affiliation http://archive.is/7HAkr
Psy Group developed elaborate information operations for commercial clients and political candidates around the world http://archive.is/BBblQ
Top mod of /Mechanical_Gifs tries to sell subreddit on ebay for 999.00 dollars. http://archive.is/kU1Ly
Shill posts picture of a dog in a hammock with the brand clearly visible without indicating that it's an ad in the title of the post http://archive.is/Mfdk9
Arstechnica: GCHQs menu of tools spreads disinformation across Internet- “Effects capabilities” allow analysts to twist truth subtly or spam relentlessly. http://arstechnica.com/security/2014/07/ghcqs-chinese-menu-of-tools-spread-disinformation-across-internet/
Samsung Electronics Fined for Fake Online Comments http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/10/24/samsung-electronics-fined-for-fake-online-comments/?_r=0
Discover Magazine: Researchers Uncover Twitter Bot Army That’s 350 http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/d-brief/2017/01/20/twitter-bot-army/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A%20DiscoverTechnology%20%28Discover%20Technology%29#.WIMl-oiLTnA
Times of Israel - The internet: Israel’s new PR battlefield http://blogs.timesofisrael.com/the-rise-of-digital-diplomacy-could-be-changing-israels-media-image/
Time: Social Media Manipulation? When “Indie” Bloggers and Businesses Get Cozy http://business.time.com/2013/04/22/social-media-manipulation-when-indie-bloggers-and-businesses-get-cozy/
Content-Driven Detection of Campaigns in Social Media [PDF] http://faculty.cs.tamu.edu/caverlee/pubs/lee11cikm.pdf
the law preventing them from using this in America was repealed http://foreignpolicy.com/2013/07/14/u-s-repeals-propaganda-ban-spreads-government-made-news-to-americans/
Redditor who works for a potato mailing company admits to being a shill. He shows off his 27 thousand dollars he made in /pics
http://i.imgur.com/CcTHwdS.png
Screenshot of post since it was removed. http://i.imgur.com/k9g0WF8.png
Just thought I'd contribute to this thread http://imgur.com/OpSos4u
CNN: A PR firm has revealed that it is behind two blogs that previously appeared to be created by independent supporters of Wal-Mart. The blogs Working Families for Wal-mart and subsidiary site Paid Critics are written by 3 employees of PR firm Edelman http://money.cnn.com/2006/10/20/news/companies/walmart_blogs/index.htm
Vice: Your Government Wants to Militarize Social Media to Influence Your Beliefs http://motherboard.vice.com/read/your-government-wants-to-militarize-social-media-to-influence-your-beliefs
BBC News: China's Internet spin doctors http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7783640.stm
BBC News: US plans to 'fight the net' revealed http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4655196.stm
Wall Street Journal: Turkey's Government Forms 6 http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424127887323527004579079151479634742?mg=reno64-wsj&url=http%3A%2F%2Fonline.wsj.com%2Farticle%2FSB10001424127887323527004579079151479634742.html
Fake product reviews may be pervasive http://phys.org/news/2013-07-fake-product-pervasive.html#nRlv
USA Today: The co-owner of a major Pentagon propaganda contractor publicly admitted that he was behind a series of websites used in an attempt to discredit two USA TODAY journalists who had reported on the contractor. http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/military/story/2012-05-24/Leonie-usa-today-propaganda-pentagon/55190450/1
ADWEEK: Marketing on Reddit Is Scary http://www.adweek.com/news/technology/marketing-reddit-scary-these-success-stories-show-big-potential-168278
BBC- How online chatbots are already tricking you- Intelligent machines that can pass for humans have long been dreamed of http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20140609-how-online-bots-are-tricking-you
BBC news: Amazon targets 1 http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-34565631
BBC: More than four times as many tweets were made by automated accounts in favour of Donald Trump around the first US presidential debate as by those backing Hillary Clinton http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-37684418
Fake five-star reviews being bought and sold online - Fake online reviews are being openly traded on the internet
http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-43907695
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-20982985
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-20982985
Bloomberg: How to Hack an Election [and influence voters with fake social media accounts] http://www.bloomberg.com/features/2016-how-to-hack-an-election/
"Internet Reputation Management http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2008-04-30/do-reputation-management-services-work-businessweek-business-news-stock-market-and-financial-advice
Buzzfeed: Documents Show How Russia’s Troll Army Hit America http://www.buzzfeed.com/maxseddon/documents-show-how-russias-troll-army-hit-america#.ki8Mz97ly
The Rise of Social Bots http://www.cacm.acm.org/magazines/2016/7/204021-the-rise-of-social-bots/fulltext
CBC News- Canadian government monitors online forums http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/bureaucrats-monitor-online-forums-1.906351
Chicago Tribune: Nutrition for sale: How Kellogg worked with 'independent experts' to tout cereal http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/ct-kellogg-independent-experts-cereal-20161121-story.html
DailyKos: HBGary: Automated social media management http://www.dailykos.com/story/2011/02/16/945768/-UPDATED-The-HB-Gary-Email-That-Should-Concern-Us-All
Meme Warfare Center http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tfulltext/u2/a507172.pdf
Shilling on Reddit is openly admitted to in this Forbes article http://www.forbes.com/sites/julesschroede2016/03/10/the-magic-formula-behind-going-viral-on-reddit/#1d2485b05271
Forbes: From Tinder Bots To 'Cuban Twitter' http://www.forbes.com/sites/kashmirhill/2014/04/17/from-tinder-bots-to-covert-social-networks-welcome-to-cognitive-hacking/#4b78e2d92a7d
Hivemind http://www.hivemind.cc/rank/shills
Huffington Post- Exposing Cyber Shills and Social Media's Underworld http://www.huffingtonpost.com/sam-fiorella/cyber-shills_b_2803801.html
The Independent: Massive British PR firm caught on video: "We've got all sorts of dark arts...The ambition is to drown that negative content and make sure that you have positive content online." They discuss techniques for managing reputations online and creating/maintaining 3rd-party blogs that seem independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/caught-on-camera-top-lobbyists-boasting-how-they-influence-the-pm-6272760.html
New York Times: Lifestyle Lift http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/15/technology/internet/15lift.html?_r=1&emc=eta1
New York Times: Give Yourself 5 Stars? Online http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/23/technology/give-yourself-4-stars-online-it-might-cost-you.html?src=me&ref=general
NY Times- From a nondescript office building in St. Petersburg http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/07/magazine/the-agency.html?_r=1
NY Times: Effort to Expose Russia’s ‘Troll Army’ Draws Vicious Retaliation http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/31/world/europe/russia-finland-nato-trolls.html?_r=1
PBS Frontline Documentary - Generation Like http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/generation-like/
Gamers promote gaming-gambling site on youtube by pretending to hit jackpot without disclosing that they own the site. They tried to retroactively write a disclosure covering their tracks http://www.pcgamer.com/csgo-lotto-investigation-uncovers-colossal-conflict-of-interest/
Raw Story: CENTCOM engages bloggers http://www.rawstory.com/news/2006/Raw_obtains_CENTCOM_email_to_bloggers_1016.html
Raw Story: Air Force ordered software to manage army of fake virtual people http://www.rawstory.com/rs/2011/02/18/revealed-air-force-ordered-software-to-manage-army-of-fake-virtual-people/
Redective http://www.redective.com/?r=e&a=search&s=subreddit&t=redective&q=shills
Salon: Why Reddit moderators are censoring Glenn Greenwald’s latest news story on shills http://www.salon.com/2014/02/28/why_reddit_moderators_are_censoring_glenn_greenwalds_latest_bombshell_partne
The Atlantic: Kim Kardashian was paid to post a selfie on Instagram and Twitter advertising a pharmaceutical product. Sent to 42 million followers on Instagram and 32 million on Twitter http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/09/fda-drug-promotion-social-media/404563/
WAR.COM: THE INTERNET AND PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS http://www.theblackvault.com/documents/ADA389269.pdf
The Guardian: Internet Astroturfing http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/libertycentral/2010/dec/13/astroturf-libertarians-internet-democracy
The Guardian: Israel ups the stakes in the propaganda war http://www.theguardian.com/media/2006/nov/20/mondaymediasection.israel
Operation Earnest Voice http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2011/ma17/us-spy-operation-social-networks
The Guardian: British army creates team of Facebook warriors http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/jan/31/british-army-facebook-warriors-77th-brigade
The Guardian: US military studied how to influence Twitter [and Reddit] users in Darpa-funded research [2014] http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/08/darpa-social-networks-research-twitter-influence-studies
The Guardian: Chinese officials flood the Chinese internet with positive social media posts to distract their population http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/may/20/chinese-officials-create-488m-social-media-posts-a-year-study-finds
Times of Israel: Israeli government paying bilingual students to spread propaganda online primarily to international communities without having to identify themselves as working for the government. "The [student] union will operate computer rooms for the project...it was decided to establish a permanent structure of activity on the Internet through the students at academic institutions in the country." http://www.timesofisrael.com/pmo-stealthily-recruiting-students-for-online-advocacy/
USA Today: Lord & Taylor settles FTC charges over paid Instagram posts http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/2016/03/15/lord--taylor-settles-ftc-charges-over-paid-instagram-posts/81801972/
Researcher's algorithm weeds out people using multiple online accounts to spread propaganda - Based on word choice http://www.utsa.edu/today/2016/10/astroturfing.html
http://www.webinknow.com/2008/12/the-us-air-force-armed-with-social-media.html
Wired: Powered by rapid advances in artificial intelligence http://www.wired.co.uk/magazine/archive/2015/06/wired-world-2015/robot-propaganda
Wired: Clinton Staff and Volunteers Busted for Astroturfing [in 2007] http://www.wired.com/2007/12/clinton-staff-a/
Wired: Pro-Government Twitter Bots Try to Hush Mexican Activists http://www.wired.com/2015/08/pro-government-twitter-bots-try-hush-mexican-activists/
Wired: Microsoft http://www.wired.com/2015/09/ftc-machinima-microsoft-youtube/
Wired: Military Report: Secretly ‘Recruit or Hire Bloggers’ http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2008/03/report-recruit/
Wired: Air Force Releases ‘Counter-Blog’ Marching Orders http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2009/01/usaf-blog-respo/
Reddit Secrets https://archive.fo/NAwBx
Reddit Secrets https://archive.fo/SCWN7
Boostupvotes.com https://archive.fo/WdbYQ
"Once we isolate key people https://archive.is/PoUMo
GCHQ has their own internet shilling program https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint_Threat_Research_Intelligence_Group
Russia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State-sponsored_Internet_sockpuppetry
US also operates in conjunction with the UK to collect and share intelligence data https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UKUSA_Agreement
Glenn Greenwald: How Covert Agents Infiltrate the Internet to Manipulate https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2014/02/24/jtrig-manipulation/
Glenn Greenwald: Hacking Online Polls and Other Ways British Spies Seek to Control the Internet https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2014/07/14/manipulating-online-polls-ways-british-spies-seek-control-internet/
Here is a direct link to your image for the benefit of mobile users https://imgur.com/OpSos4u.jpg
Reddit for iPhone https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/reddit-the-official-app/id1064216828?mt=8
Why Satoshi Nakamoto Has Gone https://medium.com/@ducktatosatoshi-nakamoto-has-gone-4cef923d7acd
What I learned selling my Reddit accounts https://medium.com/@Rob79/what-i-learned-selling-my-reddit-accounts-c5e9f6348005#.u5zt0mti3
Artificial intelligence chatbots will overwhelm human speech online; the rise of MADCOMs https://medium.com/artificial-intelligence-policy-laws-and-ethics/artificial-intelligence-chatbots-will-overwhelm-human-speech-online-the-rise-of-madcoms-e007818f31a1
How Reddit Got Huge: Tons of Fake Accounts - According to Reddit cofounder Steve Huffman https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/how-reddit-got-huge-tons-of-fake-accounts--2
Whistleblower and subsequent investigation: Paid trolls on /Bitcoin https://np.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/34m7yn/professional_bitcoin_trolls_exist/cqwjdlw
Confession of Hillary Shill from /SandersForPresident https://np.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/3rncq9/confession_of_hillary_shill_from/
Why do I exist? https://np.reddit.com/DirectImageLinkerBot/wiki/index
Already a direct link? https://np.reddit.com/DirectImageLinkerBot/wiki/res_links
Here's the thread. https://np.reddit.com/HailCorporate/comments/3gl8zi/that_potato_mailing_company_is_at_it_again/
/netsec talks about gaming reddit via sockpuppets and how online discourse is (easily) manipulated. https://np.reddit.com/netsec/comments/38wl43/we_used_sock_puppets_in_rnetsec_last_year_and_are
Redditor comes clean about being paid to chat on Reddit. They work to promote a politician https://np.reddit.com/offmychest/comments/3gk56y/i_get_paid_to_chat_on_reddit/
Shill whistleblower https://np.reddit.com/politics/comments/rtr6b/a_very_interesting_insight_into_how_certain/
Russian bots were active on Reddit last year https://np.reddit.com/RussiaLago/comments/76cq4d/exclusive_we_can_now_definitively_state_that/?st=j8s7535j&sh=36805d5d
The Bush and Gore campaigns of 2000 used methods similar to the Chinese government for conducting “guided discussions” in chatrooms designed to influence citizens https://np.reddit.com/shills/comments/3xhoq8/til_the_advent_of_social_media_offers_new_routes/?st=j0o5xr9c&sh=3662f0dc
source paper. https://np.reddit.com/shills/comments/4d3l3s/government_agents_and_their_allies_might_ente
or Click Here. https://np.reddit.com/shills/comments/4kdq7n/astroturfing_information_megathread_revision_8/?st=iwlbcoon&sh=9e44591e Alleged paid shill leaks details of organization and actions.
https://np.reddit.com/shills/comments/4wl19alleged_paid_shill_leaks_details_of_organization/?st=irktcssh&sh=8713f4be
Shill Confessions and Additional Information https://np.reddit.com/shills/comments/5pzcnx/shill_confessions_and_additional_information/?st=izz0ga8r&sh=43621acd
Corporate and governmental manipulation of Wikipedia articles https://np.reddit.com/shills/comments/5sb7pi/new_york_times_corporate_editing_of_wikipedia/?st=iyteny9b&sh=b488263f
Ex -MMA fighter and ex-police officer exposes corrupt police practices https://np.reddit.com/shills/comments/6jn27s/ex_mma_fighter_and_expolice_officer_exposes/
User pushes InfoWars links on Reddit https://np.reddit.com/shills/comments/6uau99/chemicals_in_reddit_are_turning_memes_gay_take/?st=j6r0g2om&sh=96f3dbf4
Some websites use shill accounts to spam their competitor's articles https://np.reddit.com/TheoryOfReddit/comments/1ja4nf/lets_talk_about_those_playing_reddit_with/?st=iunay35w&sh=d841095d
User posts video using GoPro https://np.reddit.com/videos/comments/2ejpbb/yes_it_is_true_i_boiled_my_gopro_to_get_you_this/ck0btnb/?context=3&st=j0qt0xnf&sh=ef13ba81
Fracking shill whistleblower spills the beans on Fracking Internet PR https://np.reddit.com/worldnews/comments/31wo57/the_chevron_tapes_video_shows_oil_giant_allegedly/cq5uhse?context=3
https://i.imgur.com/Q3gjFg9.jpg
https://i.imgur.com/q2uFIV0.jpg
TOP SECRET SPECIAL HANDLING NOFORN
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
Directorate of Operations
October 16, 1964
MEMORANDUM FOR THE DIRECTOR OF THE CIA
Subject: After action report of
Operation CUCKOO (TS)
INTRODUCTION

1) Operation CUCKOO was part of the overall operation CLEANSWEEP, aimed at eliminating domestic opposition to activities undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency's special activities division, in main regard to operation GUILLOTINE.

2) Operation CUCKOO was approved by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Department of Defense and the office of The President of the United States as a covert domestic action to be under taken within the limits of Washington D.C as outlined by Secret Executive Order 37.

3) Following the publishing of the Warren Commission, former special agent Mary Pinchot Meyer (Operation MOCKINGBIRD, Operation SIREN) also was married to Cord Meyer (Operation MOCKINGBIRD, Operation GUILLOTINE) threatened to disclose the details of several Special Activities Divisions' operations, including but not limited to, Operation SIREN and GUILLOTENE.
​1
TOP SECRET SPECIAL HANDLING NOFORN
4) It was deemed necessary by senior Directorate of Operations members to initiate Operation CUCKOO as an extension of Operation CLEANSWEEP on November 30th. After Mary Pinchot Meyer threatened to report her knowledge of Operation GUILLOTENE and the details of her work in Operation SIREN from her affair with the former President.

5) Special Activities Division was given the green light after briefing president Johnson on the situation. The situation report was forwarded to the Department of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of staff, who both approved of the parameters of the operation, as outlined under article C of secret executive order 37 (see attached copy of article).
​PLANNING STAGES
6) 8 members of the special activities division handpicked by operation lead William King Harvey began planning for the operation on October 3rd, with planned execution before October 16th.

7) The (?) of the operation was set as the neighborhood of Georgetown along the Potomac river, where the operators would observe, take note on routines, and eventually carry the operation.

8) After nothing Meyer's routines, Edward "Eddy" Reid was picked as the operation point man who would intersect Meyer on her walk on October 12th, with lead William King Harvey providing long range support if necessary from across the Chesapeake and Ohio canal (see illustration A for detailed map).

9) Edward Reid was planned to be dressed in the manner of a homeless black man, due to his resemblances to local trash collector (later found out to be Raymond Crump) who inhabits the AO and the path that Reid was planned to intersect Meyer.
2
TOP SECRET SPECIAL HANDLING NOFORN
submitted by The_Web_Of_Slime to Intelligence [link] [comments]

Satoshi Nakamoto's Bitcoin Whitepaper - Explained and ... Mystery Founder Of Bitcoin: Uncovering Satoshi Nakamoto's ... Satoshi Nakamoto sta usando i suoi bitcoin? Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Bitcoin Kime Hizmet Ediyor? - YouTube

Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System Satoshi Nakamoto [email protected] www.bitcoin.org Abstract. A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main A purely Dec 10, 2018 - Satoshi Nakamoto is a person who created bitcoin client and Bitcoin's The total control over the domain has been handed to The History of Bitcoin is a timeline that illustrates Bitcoin History from the very beginning all the way to present day.Up until now, bitcoin futures contracts Nov 29, 2017 - Nach https://www.adwseo ... This paper is intended to describe Nakamoto’s blockchain, describe the problems inherent in the Bitcoin implementation (as well as other leading crypto-currencies), and provide a reality check ... Satoshi Nakamoto Bitcoin Wiki! Bitcoin-transaction. A Jan 29, 2018 - Bitcoin im Jahr 2007 bis 2009. Satoshi Nakamoto is the name used by the unknown person or people who developed bitcoin, authored the bitcoin white paper, created and deployed bitcoin's original reference implementation. As part of the implementation, they also devised the first blockchain database. In the process they were the first to solve the double-spending problem for digital currency using a peer-to-peer network.

[index] [32029] [33832] [25635] [25753] [27301] [21862] [18236] [22131] [27867] [696]

Satoshi Nakamoto's Bitcoin Whitepaper - Explained and ...

Vous pouvez me tiper directement en bitcoin à cette adresse: 1FboUA5ZvzTXyUGEugSFct1bixjEsZjGmx Ou sur tipeee en suivant ce lien : https://www.tipeee.com/le-... In un primo momento si è creduto che quell'indirizzo appartenesse al creatore di Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto, scomparso dal 2011, ma in seguito è emerso che probabilmente appartiene a qualcun altro. Satoshi Nakamoto is the creator of Bitcoin. He/She/They released the white paper, then released the software, then worked on the software for many years before disapearing after Gavin Andresson ... Experts agree that uncovering Satoshi Nakamoto's identity could have an immense impact on bitcoin's economics and internal politics. » Subscribe to CNBC: htt... This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue

#